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:: The Vikings of Bjornstad ::
Old Norse Dictionary
Old Norse to English

This dictionary, in both Old Norse to English and English to Old Norse versions, is derived from the sources listed at bottom. Some liberties have been taken with the English definitions to facilitate sorting them in a usable order. This is a work of data transcription, conversion, combination and formatting, with only a minor amount of scholarship thrown in. As a result, this dictionary should NOT be relied upon as unerringly accurate, and should only be used as an aid for further research.

  • For notes on the content, structure and navigation of the dictionary (recommended) click here.
  • To use the English to Old Norse version, click here.
  • For Viking ship terms, click here.
  • For Viking runes, click here.
  • For more information on the Old Norse language and runes, see the Viking Language Book Series by Jesse L. Byock here.
Old Norse --- English --- Top a æ b c d e f g h i j k l m n o œ p q r s t u v w y z þ
a not
á onto, on; to, towards; with respect to; upon; at, in; by (means of); during; in the manner of; in the course of (prep); onwards (adv)
á river (f)
á brott away (adv)
á flot afloat
áæggia urge on (v)
á-brandr gold, 'river-fire' (m)
ábyrgð liability (f)
Aðalraðr konungr Æthelred (personal name), King Æthelred II (the unready), b. c. 966 AD – d. 1016 AD (m)
Aðalsteinn Athalstan (personal name), king of England, b. 895 AD - d. 939 AD (m)
Adam Adam (personal name)
áðr before; already; first; until (adv)
Old Norse --- English --- Top a æ b c d e f g h i j k l m n o œ p r s t u v w y z þ
æ alas!
æ, ē (‡) ever, always; forever (adv)
ædle (‡) origin, extraction (n)
æðra fear; despair, despondency; words or sounds of despair (f)
æfter (‡) after (prep)
áeggjun egging on, urging (f)
ægir sea; Óðins æ - poetry, poem (m)
æja graze; rest (v)
æn (‡) but, and (conj)
æpte(r) (‡) after (prep); afterwards (adv)
æptedøme (‡) example (n)
ær (‡) who (pron)
Æsir Æsir, one of the two major groups of gods (m pl)
æsta request, ask for (v)
ætla expect, look for, intend (to do), purpose, mean; fated; think, consider (to be); ætla til - count upon, believe; ætla til fundar við - intend to meet one; ætlask fyrir - intend (v)
ætlan intent (f)
æt-lēpæ (‡) adopt (v)
ætlun estimate, opinion (f)
ætt direction, point of compass, region; family, line, lineage, stock, tribe, descent, race; ancestry; í æ Vǫlsunga - like the race of the Volsungs (f)
ættaðr descended; hvar hann var æ - what was his origin (v)
ættangr family calamity or misfortune (m)
ættar-tala genealogy (f)
ætt-leifð patrimony (f)
æva never; not at all
ævi life; age, time; life-story; alla ævi - for all time, forever (f)
æztr highest
af from, out of; with; concerning; because of (prep)
af hafi foreign, from abroad
af því at because, for
áfakliga exceedingly
afar extremely (adv)
afarmenni big or strong man (n)
afbragð outstanding example; afbragð þeira manna allra - the most outanding of all those men (n)
afbrigði deviation, transgression, offense (n)
af-hús room at the side (n)
afklæða undress (v)
afl hearth, fireplace or chimney of a forge
afl strength; physical strength, might, power; rammr at afli - extremely strong (n)
aflæ beget (v)
afli power, aid (m)
afl-raun trial of strength (f)
afráð payment, tribute; heavy penalty or toll
afreksmaðr outstanding or exceptional man (m)
afroð loss; gjalda afroð - suffer loss (n)
afrœkjask (kt) neglect
af-skipta cut off from inheritance (adj)
afskræmi-liga hideously (adv)
ágæti celebration, glory; gøra at ágætum - give great praise to (n); glorious deeds (n pl)
ágætliga honorably (adv)
ágætr excellent; famous (adj)
ágirni greed (f)
áhyggja care, anxiety (f)
ái great-grandfather (m)
aka drive (v)
ákafamaðr an aggressive man (m)
ákafi heat; vehemence (m)
ákafliga exceedingly, very, vehemently, impetuously (adv)
ákafr fierce, vehement (adj)
ákaft greatly
akarn acorn (n)
akkeri anchor (n)
akr field, crop
ak-taug halyard (ship/sailing term)
aktaumr brace (ship/sailing term)
ál leather strap (f)
ala bear, give birth to; bring up, raise (children); feed (v)
albryniaðr mailed, all clad in mail, in a byrnie
al-búinn quite prepared
al-byggðr completely settled
ald age, generation (f)
aldartal age, count of time
aldinn old, aged (adj)
aldør-döm (‡) old-age (m)
aldr age; lifetime; old age; long period of time; vera við aldr - be well on in years (m)
aldregi never
aldri never
aldrnari fire, the nourisher of life (m)
a-lengðar for the future
álfheimr Álfheim, World of the Elves (m)
Alföðr All-Father, i.e., Odin
álfr elf (m)
Álfr Alf (personal name), Elf
al-grár all gray
alheimskr completely foolish (adj)
alicarl fatso, fat churl
á-liðinn far-spent; at áliðnum degi - at the end of the day
alin Old Icelandic ell (about half a yard); unit of value, typically of woolen cloth
alit appearance, feature, aspect (n)
allfrægr very famous(adj)
allfriðr very beautiful (adj)
all-góðr very good
allharðr severe, violent (adj)
alllítill very little (adj)
allmikill very great (adj)
all-ógurligr most terrible (adj)
allr all, whole; every; entire (adj pron)
all-reiðr very angry (adj)
all-sannr quite true (adj)
all-sterkr very strong (adj)
allstórum enormously (adv)
allt completely, entirely; everywhere; allt til Orneykja - all the way to the Orkney islands; alt til þess - right up to that point; allt upp undir right up under
allvaldr sovereign ruler (m)
allvegliga splendidly
all-vel very well
almætr said by all
almannavegr main road, route normally followed (m)
almáttigr almighty
almenniligr universal
almenningr full levy of men (m)
al-mög(h)e (‡) people, commons (m)
almosa alms-giving (f)
almr bow; elm (m)
álög dues or taxes (n pl)
álpt swan (f)
Alrekr Alrek (personal name)
alsekr full outlaw (m)
alsnotr very wise, sagacious, wise (of a woman) (adj)
alsvartr pure black (adj)
Alþiófr Althjof, Great-thief
alþyða people (all the people), the majority of the people, the public, the common people (f)
alvæpni armed (fully); a complete equipment of arms
ámæli blame, reproach (m)
ámælissamr shameful
ámáttr terrible, loathsome
ámáttugr powerful (tremendously or overwhelmingly); fearsome; loathesome
ambátt handmaid, maidservant; bondwoman (f)
ambótt bondwoman (f)
amma grandmother (f)
án without (prep)
Án An (personal name)
Ánarr Anar
andask die (v)
anddyri vestibule of hall (n)
andi spirit, breath (m)
andlát death (n)
andlit face (n)
andskoti enemy, adversary (m)
andvarða commit (v)
angan delight, joy
Angantýr Angantyr (personal name)
angr grief, sorrow (m)
angra distress; distinguish (v)
annarr another, other; second, next; one (of two) (adj pron)
annarr hvárr one or another; either
annask take care of (v)
annt eager, anxious (adj)
anzuara (aþ) (‡) answer (v)
aptann evening, the separation of day from night (m)
aptr back; aft; again; vara atir - remain behind (adv)
aptrgǫngu-maðr one who walks after death (m)
ár early, in the early morning; of yore, long ago (n)
ár year; (good) season (n)
áræði courage, daring (n)
árangr season (m)
áreið cavalry charge
arf inheritance (n)
arfa-sáta heap of chickweed (f)
árferð season, harvest (f)
arfi heir (m)
arfr inheritance (m)
argr cowardly, womanish, effeminate, (passively) homosexual (adj)
ari eagle (m)
Arinbjǫrn Arinbjorn (personal name)
ármaðr steward (m)
armr poor, unfortunate, unhappy; vile, wretched, wicked (adj)
armr arm (m)
Arngrímr Arngrim (personal name)
ár-óss mouth of a river (m)
arr unwary (adj)
ársæll fortunate as to the seasonal harvest; allra konunga ársælstr - of all kings the most harvest-fortunate (adj)
árvænn promising a good seaonal harvest (adj)
arwæ (‡) heir (m)
ásamt together (adj)
Ásbrú another name for Bifröst (f)
Ásgarðr Asgard, the residence or fortress of the gods (m)
ásjá help, aid, protection; inspection; appearance, shape (f)
aska ashes (f)
askr ash, ash tree; ash spear; small ship; the great ash tree Yggdrasill (m)
ás-meginn divine strength (n)
áss god (m); Æsir - one of the two major groups of gods (m pl)
áss beam, timber, pole; ship
ást love, affection (f)
ástir love, affection (f pl)
ástugr loving, benevolent (adj)
ásuauðr ewe (m)
ásynja goddess (f)
at not
at that (conj)
at at, in; as to, as, with respect to; on account of, by reason of; close up to, around, by, to, towards, against; from; according to; regarding; concerning; after (prep)
at því er how; as
atall fierce, aggressive, terrible (adj)
atburðr occurrence, event; af þessum atburði because of this incident (m)
atdráttr provisions; supplies
atferð behavior; energy (f)
atferli proceeding (n)
atganga attack, assault; violence (f)
atgeirr thrusting-spear (m)
atgervi man of accomplishments (m)
atgørvi ability, talent, accomplishment; at atgørvi in ability (esp physical) (f and n)
atgørvimaðr man of accomplishments (m)
átján eighteen (num)
atkváma arrival (f)
atlaga alongside (laying of ships alongside for attack), attack (f)
atmælasamr fault-finding
atrið movement; hafa alt eitt atrið - do two things in one swift movement, all at once (n)
atróðr rowing towards, rowing against (m)
átrunaðr belief (m)
atseta residence, royal residence (f)
átta eight (num)
áttján eighteen (num)
áttjándi eighteenth (ord num)
áttrœðr eighty years old
auðigr rich, wealthy; auðigr at fé - very wealthy (adj)
auðit fated (v)
auðna (að) fateful, (impers.) fall out by fate
auðœfi wealth, possessions (f)
auðr treasure, wealth, riches; precious objects
auðsénn evident, easily seen
auðsýnn, auðsynn evident, clear
auga eye (n)
augabragð wink, sidelong glance
auk aside from (prep)
auka increase, augment; add; exceed, surpass; aukaþis - multiplied (v)
auki increase; fœrask í aukana - exert the utmost of one's strength (m)
aurr mud (m)
aurvangar fields (muddy or damp)
Aurvangr Aurvang (place name), Mudfield
ausa pour; sprinkle; ladle; water; (mid.) stream, flow; ausa bát - bail a boat (v)
austan from the east; east (of); bearing to the east (adv)
austmaðr Easterner, Norwegian
austr east (n); eastward (adv)
austrför travels to the east (f)
Austri East
Austrlönd the eastern lands; eastern Europe; Russia and the Orient (n pl)
austrvegr the east; the Baltic Lands (m)
auvirði worthless wretch (m)
auvirðis-maðr worthless wretch (m)
ávalt always
ávant lacking; er ávant - is wanted, needed; þykkir mér á - I think I lack (adj)
ávǫxtr increase, growth (m)
awnd (‡) hatred, envy (f)
Old Norse --- English --- Top a æ b c d e f g h i j k l m n o œ p r s t u v w y z þ
bacraut asshole
báðir both (adj)
baðmr tree (m)
bæði both, in; bæði … ok - both … and (conj)
bæði also, as well (adv)
bær house
bæsingær (‡) small hill (m)
bagall crozier, episcopal staff
baggi bag (m)
bak back (n)
baka bake (v)
bak-borði port side, 'back-side' (ship/sailing term)
bakki bank (m)
bál fire (n)
bálkr wall, partition (m)
bamba drum (f)
bana (að) kill (v)
banahǫgg death-blow (n)
banamaðr killer, executioner, slayer (m)
banasár fatal wound, mortal wound, death (n)
band band, cord, bond, bind, fetter; the act of binding; (pl) bands, fetters
bani death; bane, cause of death, slayer (m)
bann prohibition, ban (n)
banna (að) ban, forbid, prohibit (v)
bardagi fight, battle; beating, thrashing (m)
barn child (n)
barnœska childhood (f)
barr foliage, often needles (of pine, etc.) (n)
Barreyjar the Barra Isles (f pl)
barsmið fight, assault (f)
bati advantage (m)
batna improve; batnar - one recovers (v)
bátr boat (ship's boat)
baugr ring, bracelet, armlet; coil (m)
baug-set arm, 'ring seat' (n)
baug-skati ring-giving prince (m)
baulufotr foot of a cow
bautarsteinn stone (memorial stone)
Bávǫrr Bavor
beðr bed (m)
beiða ask, beg; ask for, request on one's own behalf (v)
bein bone; ivory (n)
beina assist (v)
beinahrúga bones (heap), bone-pile (f)
beini help, benefit (m)
beiskaldi gripe, bitch
beiskr bitter, acrid; angry, exasperated; painful, sore (adj)
beita sail near the wind, beat
beitiáss sailyard, spar (tacking spar) (ship/sailing term)
beiting grazing, pasturage (f)
beizl bridle (n)
bekkr bench (m)
bekk-þili boards of the benches, benches (n)
belgr pelt, skin of animals taken off whole, skin-bag, bellows, bag (m)
bella hit, hurt, dare; venture; belt við - committed against; bellendr - those who take part in (v)
belti belt (n)
ben wound (mortal) (f)
bengrefill wound-engraver (m)
ben-már raven, 'wound-grouse', 'wound-mew' (m)
bera bear, bring, carry; wear; give birth to; overcome; endure; bear (witness); bera saman - collect; compare; bera ørendi sin (upp) fyrir - plead one's case before; tell one's errand (v)
berg-risi hill-giant (m)
berja (barði, bariðr) strike, beat smite, beat; berjask - fight (v)
berling beam (ground beam for tent)
berr naked, bare; unsheathed (of a sword) (adj)
berserkr berserker (m)
berserksgangr fury of a berserker, going berserk (m)
betr better; more (adv)
betri better (adj)
beygja affliction (f)
beygja bend, arch (v)
beysta bruise, beat (v)
beytill horse-prick (m)
bezt best (adv)
beztr best (adj)
biæuær (‡) beaver (m)
biæuær-thræl (‡) beaver that is thrall (m)
biða (að) await, wait for, remain, abide; suffer, undergo (v)
biðja ask, beg, command, tell, pray; bid; ask for; ask for a woman in marriage on behalf of another; biðjum - I ask for myself; biðja gera - command to be made (v)
bifask (ð, að) shake, tremble, quake, move, be moved; march (v)
Bifröst Bifrost, the rainbow bridge that connects Miðgarðr and Ásgarðr (f)
bikkja female dog, bitch (f)
bil moment (of time) (n)
bila fail (v)
bilstyggr energetic; quickly moved
bilt startled (adj)
binda dress; bind, tie, fasten; bind up (a wound); pledge; binda í - bind to, bind on (v)
biǫð, bjǫð fields; land (n pl)
birgðir provisions (f pl)
birgja provide (v)
birgja supply (v)
birta display (v)
biskup bishop (m)
bita cut (v)
bíta bite, bite through; rip apart; cut (v)
bitr brave, biting, keen, fierce (adj)
Bívǫrr Bivor (personal name)
bjalla bell (f)
bjarg rock, stone, boulder; cliff; crag; mountain (n)
bjarga save, help (v)
bjarkan birch (n)
Bjarnadóttir Bjorn's daughter (personal name) (f)
Bjarnarfjöðr Bjorn's Fjord (place name) (m)
bjarn-báss pit (for catching bears) (m)
bjarn-dýr bear (n)
Bjarni Bjarni (personal name) (m)
bjartr bright (adj)
bjǫð fields, land(s) (n pl)
bjóða invite, order, command; bid; offer; provide; challenge; threaten; call upon, summon; offer, provide; bjóða heim - invite to one's house; bjóða upp - give up; bjóðja sætt - offer reconciliation; bjóðja at sætt - offer to for reconciliation (v)
bjóðja challenge (v)
bjóðr giver (m)
bjǫrg means of subsistence (f)
bjór-ker beer-goblet (n)
bjǫrn, björn bear (m) birnir (pl)
bjórr beer; piece of leather (m)
Bláinn Blain (personal name)
blakkr black; dark (adj)
bland (‡) in; í bland (‡) - among (prep)
blanda (blett, -að) blend, mix (v)
blandask have dealings with (v)
blár blue; dark, black (adj)
blása blow; blásinn - bare, stripped by the wind (v)
blatqnn black tooth
blautr soft; soaked, wet (adj)
bleikr white fair
blesóttr marked, having a white mark on the forehead
bleyta soft, swampy patch of ground (f)
bliða friendliness (f)
bliðr happy, pleasant; gracious (adj)
blindr blind (adj)
blóð blood (n)
bloðorn blood-eagle
blóð-refill sword point (m)
blóðugr bloody (adj)
blóm flower
blót sacrifice; heathen (n)
blóta worship; worship with sacrifice; sacrifice, sacrifice in worship; curse (v)
blunda shut the eyes, doze (v)
bǫð, boð feast, festival; summons; battle (n)
boða preach (v)
boðorð commandment
bǫð-reifr rejoicing in battle
boðsmaðr guest (m)
Bǫðvarr Bothvar (personal name)
bœgr shoulder
bœn prayer, request (f)
bœr farmhouse, farmstead; farm, landed estate; town (m)
bœta better, compensate, make compensation, make amends for (v)
bœtr compensations
bogastrengr bow-string (m)
bogi bow (m)
bóglína, boglina bowline (ship/sailing term)
bógr shoulder, shoulder of an animal (m)
bók book (f)
bokki buck, fellow (used as a manner of address); bokki sæll - good fellow, good sire, boss (m)
ból lair (n)
bǫl, böl grief, sorrow, misfortune (n)
bö-land (‡) inhabited land (n)
boløx broad-axe (f)
bölvasmiðr contriver of mischief, misfortune (m)
Bǫmburr Bombur (personal name)
bónda-lið yeoman army (n)
bóndason farmer's son, son of a yeoman, son of a bóndi (m)
bóndi husband; farmer; yeoman, franklin; head of a household (m)
borð board, strake, hull, plank; side of a ship; table; food, upkeep; rim; margin between rim and liquid; á borð - on one side (of a ship); fyrir borð - overboard (f)
borð-meiri rising higher above the sea
borðveggr wall of boards, wall made of planks
borg castle, fortress, stronghold; town; funeral pyre (f)
borgar-górð building of a stronghold (f)
borgar-hlið gateway of a stronghold (n)
borgarmaðr garrisoned soldier; townsman (m)
bor-móðr bored with a gimlet
bót bettering, cure, remedy; adornment; (pl) compensation, atonement; at botúm - as atonement (f)
bqllr ball, glans penis
brá eyelash (f)
bráðgörr matured early in life, precocious (adj)
bráðr sudden, hasty, impatient; hot-tempered; (adj)
bráðum soon, shortly (adv)
bragða (að) move, stir (v)
bragþáttr poetry (m)
braka (að) crack, creak (v)
brandr blade; brand, firewood (piece of) (m)
brátt soon, suddenly; brátt er - as soon as (adv)
brattr steep (adj)
brauð bread (n)
brauðgǫrð bread-making (f)
braudnefr breadnose
brauflutning carrying off (f)
braut road (f); í braut - away (adv)
bréf letter (n)
bregða move quickly; draw (sword), brandish (a weapon); break (faith or an oath); turn, alter, change; break off, leave off, give up; bregða við - ward off with, parry with; bregða upp - lift up, raise (to strike); bregða bui - give up one's farm; bregða sér - flinch; bregðask - fail, come to nothing; deceive, disappoint, bregðask i - shapechange, turn into; bregðr við - one is afraid; brá mǫnnum mjǫk við þat - they were greatly startled at this (v)
breiða spread; stretch; display (v)
Breiðablik Breidablik, the hall of the god Baldr (n)
breiðara more broadly (adv)
breið-øx axe with a long blade (f)
breiðr broad; breiðir steinar - brooches; bíta breiðara - take bigger bites
brekka hillside, slope
brenna burn, be on fire; burning (vi)
brenna (d) burn, light, set on fire; brenna inna - burn (a person) in his house (vt)
bresta burst, break, crash; bresta niðr - crash down; bresta upp - burst forth (v)
breyta act; do (v)
brimill seal (a variety of); brimills vǫllr - sea (the seal's field) (m)
Brimir Brimir, sword; (name of a sword); (name of a giant)
brim-sker rock on which waves break (n)
brjóst breast, chest (n)
brjóta break, break up, break open, break into; destroy; violate; deal out, distribute; exert oneself; brjóta skip - be wrecked (ship); brjóta til rikis - fight for the kingdom; brjóta upp grjót - pull up stones; exert oneself, struggle; brjótask til rikis - fight for the kingdom (v)
brodd-flǫtr shield, 'field of spear-points' (m)
broddr point of the spear, spike (m)
bróðir brother (m)
bróðurgjöld wergeld, ransom, or compensation for a dead brother (n pl)
brœkr breeches (f pl)
brǫkon, brokun clashing (f)
brotna (að) break, be broken (vi)
brott away, off (adv)
brott-hlaup running away (n)
brottkvaðning dismissal, sending away (f)
brottvaðning dismissal, sending away (f)
brú bridge; causeway built over swampy ground (f)
brúð-fé bridal gift (n)
brúðr bride, young married woman; wife (f)
brullaup, bruð-laup wedding, wedding feast; ganga at brullaupi með - marry (n)
brún eye-brow (f)
brúnáss ridge-beam (m)
bruni fire, heat (m)
brúnmóálöttr brownish-gray with a dark stripe down the back
brunn brown (adj)
brunnr well; spring; burn (m)
brusi goat (he-goat)
brut-pæningar toll paid on departure (m pl)
bryggja gangway; pier; landing-stage; bridge (f)
brynja mail (coat of); chain-mail shirt (f)
brynjulauss mail-less, without mail, unprotected (adj)
brýnn clear; urgent
brýtæ (‡) break, violate (v)
bryti bailiff, steward (m)
home, house, household; farming, farm, dwelling; estate; livestock (n)
búa live (in a place), dwell, inhabit, live; prepare, make ready; array, dress; dwell; have a household, keep house; be, be ready; búa til - prepare for; búa um - arrange, set up; búa um sik - make one's bed; búa um skip - prepare a ship (for the winter); búið heilir - dwell in peace, farewell, have a household, keep house; búa í skapi - be on one's mind; búit - equipped; búinn til - ready for, prepared, able; búa við - prepared to, ready for; svá búit - in such matters, as matters stand; við svá búit - without more ado; búask - prepare, get oneself ready; búask til - make ready for, prepare oneself for; búask til ferðar - set out; búask um - make oneself secure; encamp, take quarters, be prepared for; expect; (v)
buð booth, temporary dwelling (f)
buðlungr king, prince (m)
búfé cattle, farm-cattle (n)
bughr (‡) curve; í bugh sklialdr - behind the curved shield (m)
búi dweller, inhabitant; neighbor (m)
búinn ready, prepared (v pp of búa)
buna buna (nickname of uncertain meaning, perhaps 'one with ungartered stockings,' i.e. hanging down his leg) (f)
búnaðr equipment (m)
burðr birth (m)
burin(n) born
burlufótr, burlufotr foot (a clumsy foot) (m)
burr son (m)
Burr Bur, Odin's father
Búseyra Buseyra, a giantess killed by Thor (f)
bús-hlutr farm implements (m pl)
bús-hœgindi help in running a household (n pl)
búss wood (a type of wood) (m)
bústaðr dwelling-place (m)
home, house, household; farm; estate (n)
bee; unda bý - arrow, 'wound bees' (n)
býfluga bee (f)
bygð abode, dwelling, settlement (f)
bygghlaða barley-barn (f)
byggja (gð) dwell; settle; build; inhabit; byggias firir - settle in (v)
byggva settle; occupy, inhabit (v)
bylgja billow (v)
byrdh (‡) birth (f)
byrðr burden, load (f)
byrja begin (v)
byrja (að) begin; enter upon (v)
byrr fair wind, favorable wind; gaf þeim vel byri - they got a favorable wind (m)
bytta bucket, pail (f)
Old Norse --- English --- Top a æ b c d e f g h i j k l m n o œ p r s t u v w y z þ
cornband (‡) prohibition of corn trade (n)
cristin-dömer (‡) Christianity
cristna (‡) baptize (v)
cuna (‡) wife (f)
Old Norse --- English --- Top a æ b c d e f g h i j k l m n o œ p q r s t u v w y z þ
dáð courage, energy (f)
dáð deed (f)
dæll gentle, easy (to manage) (adj)
dæma judge (v)
daga dawn (v)
dagan, dǫgun daybreak (f)
dagmál day time, a roughly three hour time of the day beginning about 9:00 a.m.; breakfast time (n)
dagmála-staðr position of the sun at dagmál (m)
dagr day, daylight, dawn (m); daylight hours, days, time (m pl); í dag, í dagh - today; at the present day; daghum - by day; døgr - day, a 24 hour span of time
dagr-verðr day-meal, the chief meal, eaten about 9:00 a.m. (m)
dagsmark day-mark, time of day (n)
Dáinsleif Dainsleif, the name of Hógni's sword, Dain's inheritance
dálkr pin (m)
dalr dale, dell, valley (m)
Dana-konungr King of the Danes (m)
Danir Danes (m pl)
Danmörk Denmark (f)
Danskr Danish (adj)
danzleikr dance, dancing-song (m)
dāræ (‡) fool, buffoon (m)
darraðr spear (m)
dauðadagr death-day (m)
dauða-maðr doomed man; vilja hafa at dauðamanni - seek one's life (m)
dauði death; lifs né dauða - neither in life nor in death (m)
dauðr dead, death (adj)
daufi deaf-mute, stupid (adj)
daufr deaf (adj)
deila disagreement, contention (f)
deila (d) divide; distinguish; quarrel, contend; deila við - contend with (v)
deild litigation, quarrel (f)
deili details (pl)
dēl (‡) part (m)
detta drop, fall (v)
deyja die, pass away (v)
digr big, stout; thick; deep (adj)
djarfliga boldly (adv)
djarfr bold, daring (adj)
djúpauðigr deep-minded (adj)
djúpr deep (adj)
djúpvitr deep-witted, resourceful (adj)
dødher (‡), døther (‡) death (m)
dœgr, døgr day, 24 hour span of time (n)
dœma judge; proclaim (v)
dofni dopey
dǫgg, dögg dew (f)
dǫglingr prince (m)
dǫgun, dagan daybreak (f)
Døkkálfar the Dark Elves (m pl)
døkkr dark (adj)
dólg, dolg battle; þrúðr dolga - battle, the valkyrja Hild (n)
Dólgþrasir Dolgthrasir (personal name)
dómari judge (m)
dómr judgment; reputation, fame; court; heilagr dómr - sacred relic (m)
dómr fame, renown, reputation (m)
dómr judgment (whether favorable or unfavorable) (m)
dómstaðr place where court is held (m)
dómstóll judgment seat (m)
dóttir daughter (f)
dótturson grandson, daughter's son (m)
dǫuðar-orð (‡) death tidings; sæghia dǫuðar-orð - slay one in a fight (n)
draga haul (v)
draga pull, draw, drag, haul; draga seil upp - hoist sail; draga et sér - collect; draga til - compel, induce; draga frá - clear away; draga undan - escape; draga á vetur - feed through the winter (v)
dragi slowpoke
dragreip halyard (ship/sailing term)
dráp killing, murder (n)
drasill horse (poetic) (m)
draugr ghost, 'undead man'; tree-trunk (m)
draumblæti pride, haughtiness (n)
draumr dream (m)
Draupnir Draupnir, dripper, a gold ring possessed by Odin with the ability to multiply itself
dreifa (ð) spread, scatter; sprinkle; dreifask - be spread out (v)
dreki dragon-ship (m)
drekka drink; drekka af - empty; drekka af horninu inn þriðja drykinn - empty the horn at the third draught (v)
drekkja (kt) drown (dat.)
drengiliga manfully (adv)
drengiligr brave, valiant (adj)
drengr warrior; bold man, gallant fellow (m)
drengskapr nobility, courage (m)
drepa kill, slay; strike, smite; knock; drepa fœti - stumble (v)
dreyma dream (v)
dreyra bleed, ooze (of blood from a slight wound) (v)
dreyri blood (m)
dreyrugr blood-stained (adj)
drif throng (v)
drifa drive (vt)
drifa crowd, throng, drift, hurry, rush (vi)
drjúgr substantial, lasting, ample; verða drúgari - be of more avail; drjúgt manna - a good number of men (adj) drjúgjum - greatly (adv)
drjúpa drip (v)
dróttinn lord, leader of the host (m)
dróttning queen (f)
droyma (d) (‡) appear in a dream (v)
drúpa droop (v)
drykkja drinking (f)
drykkr drink, draught (m)
drykkyumaðr drinker (m)
dúði toss (v)
dúfa dove, pigeon (f)
duga help, aid, be useful, be of avail, be of assistance; be safe for; do, show prowess; gott at duga - good (easy) to help; duga verr - come off badly, fare worse (in a contest) (v); suffice (vi)
dugr ability, skill, prowess; boldness, fearlessness, courage, doughtiness (m)
dul reserve, folly; conceit
duna noise (thunderous noise) (f)
duna (að) resound (v)
dunði resound; whir (v)
Durinn Durin (personal name)
Dvalinn Dvalin (personal name), Delayer
dvelja slow, stop (v)
dveljask (dvalðisk) stay; be delayed (v)
dvergr dwarf; fibula (m)
dvǫl delay (f)
dyja (dúði) shake, toss (v)
dylja (dulði) deceive oneself; keep on in ignorance of; vera dulinn - be unaware of; ganga duliðr - be mistaken; (v)
dynja din, thunder, resound, whir, whistle (of wings), whizz; pour, shower (v)
dýr wild beast; animal; deer (n)
dýra-mergr marrow of animals (m)
dyrð, dyrk glory (f)
dyrr door, doorway (f pl)
dýrr expensive, dear; precious (adj)
dýrs-hjarta beast's heart (n)
dýr-vǫrðr door-keeper (m)
dys grave, cairn (f)
Old Norse --- English --- Top a æ b c d e f g h i j k l m n o œ p r s t u v w y z þ
ē (‡) always; ē oc ē - forever
Eadmundr Eadmund (personal name)
eða or; and; (introducing a question) but (conj)
eðli nature, characteristic(s)
eðr still
ef if; whether; (to see) if; lest (conj)
efja mud, mire (f)
efla make, perform; support, aid; efla blót - do sacrifice; efla tafl - play at tables; elpti - was able (v)
efna perform, fulfill (v)
efna-leysi poverty, lack of means (n)
efni material; state, condition; reason (n)
efniligr promising (adj)
efri upper, inner; latter; later; hit efri - in the upper (inland) part; œfre lut dagsins - towards the end of the day (adj)
efst highest (adv)
efstr uppermost, highest
egg egg (n)
egg (also ægg) edge (f)
eggja (að) incite, goad, egg on, urge, whet; láta at aeggjask - yield to urging (v)
eggskurn egg shell (f)
eggþrima battle; clash of edges (f)
eggtog battle; drawing of the sword (n)
egg-tog battle, drawing of the sword (n)
egg-ver egg-field, sea birds' breeding-ground (n)
egiæn own (adj)
Egill Egil (personal name)
Egilsstaðir Egilstadir (place name) Egil's farmstead (m pl)
eiðr oath (m)
eiga own, have, possess; have in marriage; have the power to; have claim to; have duty to; be married or related to; must, owe, be obligated, have to; eiga ráðagørð - take counsel; eiga vaka - have to be awake; eiga við - deal with, have to deal with; verða eigandi - become the owner of; eigask við - wrestle, fight (v)
eigi not (adv)
eigi at síðr nonetheless
eign possessions (f)
eigna (að) attribute, dedicate; take possession of; eignask - get, claim, take, become the owner of
eignask (að) get, possess; gain possession of, get for oneself (v)
eigu possession
eigu-t have not (they have not)
eik oak; tree; ship (f)
Eikinskialdi Eikinskjald (personal name), Oakenshield
Eilífr Eilif (personal name)
eimi smoke, reek (m)
Ein-fœtingr one-footed, uniped (m)
einga only (adj)
einhendr one-handed
einheri great champion (addressing Thor) (m); einherjar - slain warriors who dwell in Valhöll (m pl)
ein-hleypingr vagrant; unmarried man of no fixed abode; landloper (m)
einn one (num)
einn alone; (when placed after the noun it modifies, einn can take on the meaning 'only') (adj)
einn a, an, a certain one, particular; only; einn saman, einn samt - only, alone; einir sér - by themselves, separately; at eins - only; þvi at eins - only on this condition; same; at einu - in the same way; æinn- some one; einna - of all (pron)
einnhverr some, a certain one, any; einn hverr - each, each one; any one (of several); einnhvern dag - one day (adj pron)
einráðinn resolved
einvaldi sole ruler, monarch, sovereign (m)
einvaldskonungr sole ruler (m)
einvigi duel, single combat (n)
eir bronze; copper (n)
Eiríkr Eirik (personal name)
Eiriksfjörðr Eiriksfjord (place name), Eirik's Fjord
eista testicle (n)
eitr poison (n)
eitr-ormr poisonous serpent (m)
eittsvat some, something, a certain one (adj pron)
ek I (pron)
ekki nothing (n pron)
ekki not, by no means (adv)
ekkja widow (f)
él shower, passing storm; hailstorm (n)
el(l)ztr (also ellstr) oldest, eldest (adj)
eldask grow old (v)
eldaskáli fire hall, main hall of a long house where benches used for sitting and sleeping were warmed by a long fire that ran the length of the hall and was used for cooking (m)
elding dawn; last part of the night before dawn (f)
eldi-stokkr blazing brand, firebrand (burning wood) (m)
eldi-viðr firewood (m)
eldr fire (m)
elfr great river (f)
Elfráðr inn rikki Alfred the Great (personal name) (m)
elgr elk; branda elgr - beaked ship (m)
eljun endurance (f)
ella else; or, or else (adv and conj)
elli age; old age (f)
ellifu eleven (num)
elligar otherwise (adv)
ellri older, elder (adj)
elska love, affection (f)
elska (að) love, be fond of; elskask - love one another; elskask at - grow fond of (v)
elta chase, pursue; cast down (v)
él-þollr 'storm tree' (m)
elviscr (‡), elvist (‡) bewitched; enchanted (n)
em am; em-k-a - I am not (v)
Embla Embla (personal name)
Emma Emma (personal name)
en but, and; than; when, if; þá en - when; en at - than that (conj)
en er but when (conj)
en þó nevertheless (adv)
enda and; and if; and indeed, moreover; even; even if; and also, and so; and yet (conj)
enda end, bring to an end; endask til - suffice (for) (v)
enda-mjór thin at the end, gera endamjótt við - leave in the lurch
endi, endir end (m)
endlangr the whole length of (adj)
endr again, once more (adv)
endrþaga silence in return, reciprocated silence
eng meadow, pasture land (f)
enga-lund in no way
engi no, none, no one; at engu því - with no such things (pron)
engill angel (m)
Engla-konungr king of the English (Angles); king of England (m)
England England (n)
Englar English (pl.), Angles
enn still; also; yet; further; again; moreover; even (adv)
enni forehead (n)
Enskr, Ænskr English (adj)
en-wīgh (‡) combat (single)
eptir after, behind; for, to obtain; along; according to; after the death of; in succession to; in memory of; eptir landinu - along the coast; after somebody; þar eptir - after it; afterwards; behind; back; vera eptir - remain behind; honum varð eptir - he left behind (unintentionally) (prep)
eptir-bátr boat (small boat towed behind a ship) (m)
eptri farther back; hind
epztr also aptasr farthest back
er who, which, that; when; where; as; redundant; is (conj)
ér you (pron)
erendi errand, mission, result of errand (n)
erfa (ð) inherit; throw a funeral feast; commemorate with a funeral feast (v)
erfi funeral feast (n)
erfiði trouble, effort; toil (n)
erfiðr difficult, troublesome (adj)
erfiðr trouble, difficulty (n)
erfingi heir(m)
ergjask become cowardly (v)
erja plough, scratch; scrape (v)
ermr sleeve (f)
ertinga-maðr one who endure insult (m)
eski-askr warrior, 'spear-ash' (m)
eta eat (v)
eta (‡) food (f)
etja incite; etja vandræðum við mik - set yourself in defiance against me (v)
Eva Eve (personal name)
ey island (f)
ey forever; always; ever
ey=eigi not (adv)
eybarmr island surface (m)
eyða (dd) waste; spend; do away with, destroy; make empty; lay waste; eyðask - be squandered, come to naught (v)
eyðidalr desolate (unpopulated) valley (m)
eyðimǫrk desolate forest land (m)
Eyfura Eyfura (personal name)
eygðr having eyes; eygðr mjǫk - having big eyes
eyjarskeggi island inhabitant (m)
eykt afternoon; snacking time, a roughly three hour portion of the day beginning about 3:00 p.m. (f)
eyktarstaðr position of the sun at eykt (m)
eyland island (n)
eyna island (n)
eyra ear (n)
eyrir ounce of silver or gold; eighth part of a mǫrk; (from Latin aureum, aura) (m)
eyrr gravelly riverbank; small spit of land running into the sea; sandbank; shoal; spit (f)
eystri more eastern
Old Norse --- English --- Top a æ b c d e f g h i j k l m n o œ p r s t u v w y z þ
get, take, procure; grasp; marry; put, give, deliver; catch; have, make use of; receive; suffer; (with ppart.) be able to, get accomplished; take place; struggle; wrestle; take part in; move, affect; fekk konu - got married (lit got a wife); fá góðar viðtökur - be welcomed well; fáum aiga - we shall get; fá til - bring forward, provide (for) (v)
fá (ð) color, fashion (runes) (v)
faar sheep (f)
faðir father (m)
fæða give birth to (v)
fægir artist; jǫru fægir - warrior (m)
fæla (d) frighten; (refl.) be frightened (v)
færa hurl (v)
færa less
Fáfnir Fafnir, a son of Hreidmar who turns himself into a dragon, brother of Regin (m)
fagna (að) glad (to be glad); rejoice at, welcome (v)
fagna-fundr joyful meeting (m)
fagr (ran) beautiful, fair, attractive (adj)
fagrliga beautifully (adv)
fálátr silent, reserved, taciturn (adj)
fall fall (n)
falla fall, fall down; flow; be slain; fail; falla niðr - fall to the ground; fallask - fail (v)
falr for sale; spent (adj)
fá-máligr, fá-málugr of few words
fang grasp, catch, hold; wrestling, contest, provisions; breast; hafa fult fang - have all one can do; taka fang - wrestle (n)
fangi prisoner (m)
far track; subject; conduct, deeds; condition (n)
fár few; little; a small number; cold, reserved; fátt manna - few men (lit few of men) (adj)
fár mischief, malice (n)
fara go, move, travel; behave, act (as); fare, have fortune; turn out, happen; receive, suffer; fara at - attack; go, proceed; fara frá - leave, back off, back away; fara í klæði - dress; fara af klæði - undress; fara í rekkju - go to bed; fara til svefns - go to sleep; fara sendiferð - go on an errand; fara með - deal with; fara at or fara til - set to work, go about the business; fara við - deal with; ferr þér at illu, er þér illa saman farit - you do wrong; þér farið óhermannliga - behave in an unsoldierly fashion; fara vel, fara heill - farewell; fara heil ok vel - farewell and prosper; fara fram - continue, go on; fersk þeim vel - their journey goes well; fórsk honum seinna - his journey took longer; hafði alt farizk vel at - all had gone well with their journey; vera farinn at - come to the end of (v)
fararleyfi leave to depart (n)
farar-skjóti horse; means of conveyance (m)
fárbjóðr destroyer (m)
farmaðr seaman, seafarer, sailor, merchant, trader (m)
farmr cargo (m)
farþegi passenger on a voyage (m)
fásénn rare (adj)
fáskiptinn reserved; not meddlesome (adj)
fast firmly; fast, strongly, hard; certainly (adv)
fastr firm, fast; hard, severe; continuous (adj)
fat bag (n); clothes; bed clothes (n pl)
fata-búr (‡) wardrobe; treasury (n)
fathær-banæ (‡) slayer of one's father (m)
fatlaþR (‡) strapped
fátœkð poverty (f)
fátœkr poor, wretched (adj)
fða feed (v)
cattle; sheep; wealth, money; possessions; var hon mjǫk gefin til fjár - she was married to him mainly for his money (n)
feðgar father and son(s) (m pl)
feginn glad, joyful (adj)
fegrð beauty (f)
féhirðir herdsman (m)
feigr doomed, about to die, fated to die; dead (adj)
feikinstafir curses (m pl)
feitr fat (adj)
fela hide, conceal; make over, commend (v)
félagi friend, partner, comrade, companion, fellow (m)
félauss penniless (adj)
feldr cloak (m)
félítill poor (adj)
fell hill, mountain (n)
fella slay, fell; fella heitstrengingar á sik - draw down on one a curse for the breaking of an oath (v)
fēm (‡) five (num)
fémætr valuable (adj)
fémunir money; valuables (m pl)
fen bog, fen (n)
fénaðr cattle (m)
fen-stigi fens traveler; one who goes in the fens (m)
féráns-dómr court of confiscation (m)
ferð journey; conduct, behavior; dealings (f)
ferma load; ferma með - load with (v)
ferskeyttr four-cornered (adj)
festa (t) fasten; strengthen; learn by heart; bite, take effect on; fæstiz viðr - withstood (the strokes) (v)
festr rope, trap (?) (f)
fet pace; step (as measure), foot (n)
feta step; proceed in, begin to (v)
feti strider, stepper, pacer (name for a horse) (n)
fetill band, girdle (m)
fetils svell sword of ice, the gleaming sword
fiaura-tighi (‡) forty (num)
fiðri feathers (n)
fífl-megir monstrous kindred (m pl)
fí-lépi (‡) cattle (n)
Fíli Fili (personal name)
fill unpleasant (adj)
fim(m)tán fifteen (num); fim(m)tándi - fifteenth (ord num)
fimbulþulr mighty sage
fimbul-vetr monstrous winter (m)
fimm five (num)
fingr finger (m)
finna find, discover, notice; compose; devise; visit; meet; invent; be found, be discovered; finnask - be found, be perceived, noticed; be found, perceived, noticed by; vel til fundit - well chosen; meet (each other); finnask míkit um - be greatly disturbed or moved; láta sér fátt um finnask - concern oneself little with; have little to say about (v)
Finnr Finn (personal name)
firar men, people; living beings or creatures; humankind (m pl)
fiskr fish (m)
fit land, shore (f)
fiþla (‡) fiddle (f)
fjaðralauss featherless, without feathers (adj)
fjaðrhamr feather-coat, feather skin, coat; shape (m)
Fjalarr Fjalar (personal name)
fjall mountain, fell (n)
fjalltindr mountain top
fjándi enemy (m)
fjándmaðr enemy (m)
fjara ebb-tide, fore-shore, shore, beach; at fjǫru sjávar - at low tide (f)
fjarð-skorinn indented with firths (fjords)
fjár-hagi cattle pasture (m)
fjarri, fierri far, far off; by no means; fjarri fór þat - far from it (adv)
fjár-skipti division or share of property (n)
fjǫðr feather, wing (f)
fjǫl host (n)
fjöl? deck planking?
fjölð multitude, plenty of; great number, store (f)
fjǫlði multitude, abundance (m)
fjǫlgask (að) multiply (v)
fjölkunnigr skilled in magic (adj)
fjölkyngi magic, black art, sorcery (f)
fjǫllóttr mountainous
fjǫlmennask (t) populated, become peopled, full of people
fjǫlmenni crowd, force of men (n)
fjǫlmennr, fjölmennr crowded, in a large group, numerous; with many people, well-attended (adj)
fjölmennt in crowds, in large numbers (adv)
Fjón Fyn, Denmark (place name)
fjǫr life (n)
fjǫrbaugs-garðr lesser outlawry (m)
fjǫrbaugs-maðr lesser outlaw (m)
fjǫrði, fjórði fourth (ord num)
fjǫrðr fjord, firth, inlet (m)
fjórir four (num); fjórði - fourth (ord num)
fjǫrlag death, loss of life (n)
fjörlausn ransom for one's life; release from life (f)
fjörsegi life-morsel, heart (m)
fjórtán fourteen (num); fjórtándi - fourteenth (ord num)
fjǫtra (að) fetter, bind (v)
fjǫturr, fjóturr shackle, fetter (m)
fjúka fly (v)
flá flay; strip (of clothes and of money); skin (v)
flá skin (v)
flagð ogress, giantess (n)
flaki wicker-work shield or barrier (m)
flakka roam, wander about (as a shepherd with his sheep) (v)
flár false, treacherous (adj)
fláráðr false, deceitful (adj)
flaska flask; flösku-skegg - bottlebeard (nickname) (f)
flatnefr flat-nose (as in nickname) (adj)
flatr flat, prostrate (adj)
flaugun flying, flight; alt er á fǫr ok flaugun - all is in commotion (f)
flein-drífa spear throwing; throwing of spears (f)
fleinn spear (for throwing), pike, dart, shaft; fluke of an anchor (ship/sailing term) (m)
fleiri more; further, other
flekkr speck, spot (m)
flesk bacon (n)
flestr most (adj)
flet boards of a hall used for seating
fletta strip (v)
fleygja (gð) shoot; let something fly; hurl (v)
flík flag, rag (f)
fljóð woman
fljót river (n)
fljóta float; skipit flaut - the ship floated (at anchor) (v)
fljótliga speedily, soon (adv)
fljótr readily (adv)
fljótr swift, fleeing; sem fljótast - at once (adj)
fljúga fly; floginn - flying (v)
flóð flood, tide (n)
flœrð deceit
flokkr men (body of men); short lay (m)
floti fleet (m)
flotnar seafarers, Vikings (m pl)
flótti flight (m)
flutningr pleading (m)
flyja, flýja flee (v)
flytja carry; bring, deliver; convey, move, remove; speak; tell, recite; plead (a case); flytja upp - unload (v)
fnasa snort (v)
fnǫsun snorting, blowing out (f)
fóðr fodder (n)
fǫðurbróðir uncle, father's brother (m)
fǫður-hefndir revenge for one's father (f pl)
föðurkyn father's kin (n)
föðursystir aunt, father's sister (f)
Old Norse --- English --- Top a æ b c d e f g h i j k l m n o œ p r s t u v w y z þ
fœða support (v)
fœða (dd) give birth to; feed; nurse; rear, bring up; grow up; fœða upp - bring up; fœðask - grow up, be brought up; be born; feed oneself, be fed; fœðask upp - grow up, be brought up (v)
fœra (ð) bring, present, convey, send, give; hurl, smite; move; fœra hǫfuð - give onself up to another; fœra fram - bring forward; fœra upp - raise up; fœra fœtr við - brace one's feet against a pull; fœrask í - fall into (v)
fœri opportunity (n)
fœrr able to go; fœrr til - capable of (adj)
fǫgnuðr, fógnuðr entertainment, delight (m)
fólcvíg war, troop-slaying, battle (between armies)
fold earth, world (f)
fólk, folk folk, people, men; troop, host of warriors; (poetic) battle; miþ fulki (‡) - with human victims (n)
fólkhagi leader, prince (m)
fǫlna (að) fade; grow pale (v)
fǫlr pale (adj)
før (‡) formerly, previously (adv)
för, fǫr journey, journeying; expedition; movement; í fǫr - in company with; eiga skip í fǫrum - own a trading ship (f)
forað monster (n)
for-biūdha (‡) forbid (v)
for-buðū prohibition (n)
forða (að) save (v)
forðum formerly, some time ago; of old (adv)
for-eldra (‡) ancestors (m pl)
for-faras (‡) perish, be lost (v)
for-hardher (‡) hard of heart (adj)
foringi captain, commander, leader (m)
forkunnar exceedingly (adj)
forlǫg destiny; fate (n pl)
formaðr captain, leader, chieftain, (lit fore-man) (m)
formælandi supporter, advocate, speaker on one's behalf
formáli stipulation, condition; preamble, foreward, preface; formula; charm (m)
for-man (‡) ruler (m)
forn old, ancient (adj)
forn-kveðit said of old, in days gone by (n)
for-órth warning (n)
førra first (adv)
forrað administration, management; til forrað - for rulership
fors waterfall (m)
forsjá care, aid; patronage (f)
forstjóri overseer, leader (m)
for-stofa entrance hall (f)
forstreymis downstream (adv)
fortǫlur exhortations (f pl)
fǫru-nautr companion on a journey (m)
fǫruneyti company (n)
forvirki labor, hired help (n)
forvitnask find out, inquire (v)
forvitni curiosity (f)
forvitnis-bót satisfaction of curiosity (f)
foss waterfall, force (m)
fóstbróðir foster-brother (m)
fóstr fostering of a child; taka til fóstrs - take as a foster child; vera at fóstri - be a foster-child, be in a fostering relationship (n)
fóstra foster-mother; nurse
fóstra (að) foster (v)
fóstri foster-father; foster-brother; foster-son; fosterling (m)
fóta-fjǫl foot-board (f)
fót-hvatr swift of foot (adj)
fótr foot; leg, foot and leg (m)
frá from; about, concerning (prep); away; upp frá þessu- from now on (adv)
fræði history
frægiligr magnificent; honorable (adj)
frægr famous, well-known (adj)
Frægr Fraeg (personal name)
fræknliga bravely (adv)
frændi friend, relative, kinsman (m)
frænd-rœkinn attached to one's kin
frændsemi kinship (f)
fráliga swiftly (adv)
fram forward, on; away; out; í dalnum fram - in the upper part of the valley; um fram - better than, surpassing (adv)
framan forward; from the front; from the front side; framan í hann - in his face; framan til mið dags - up to midday (adv)
framar ahead, further forward (adv)
framast farthest forward (adv)
framganga advance, attack (f)
frami fame, growth, success; advancement, benefit, profit; luck; courage, ability (m)
framkvæmd progress; success (f)
frammi hafa frammi - produce, make use of (adv)
framr foremost, forward, facing forwards, standing in front; outstanding, excellent; (superl.) farthest back in time, earliest (adj)
framstafn prow (m)
frān (‡) from (prep)
fránn gleaming (adj)
Frár Frar (personal name)
frásagnarverðr worth relating
fráskila separated
frásǫgn information; narration
frauð froth; juice (n)
fregn news, information (f)
fregna learn; hear of; ask; be informed; fregna æftir - learn by inquiry; fr'ak (fr'a ek) - I heard (v)
fregnvíss curious (adj)
freista (st) try; make trial of; test; put to the test (v)
freki wolf (m)
frekr greedy (adj)
frels free, unhindered (adj)
frelsa rescue, save (v)
fremja accomplish, perform (v)
fremr more, further (adv)
frest delay, respite; lj'a fresta - give; respite (n)
fretr fart
frétt news (f)
frétta ask, inquire, hear of (v)
Freyja Freyja, a fertility goddess (f)
Freys Freys, a nickname of Freyr
friðar-tákn token of peace (n)
friðr peace (m)
friðr beautiful, handsome, fine (adj)
Frigg Frigg, a goddess, wife of Odin (f)
frilla mistress, concubine (f)
frjáls free; með frjálsu - in peace
frjósa freeze (v)
fróðleikr knowledge, lore, magic (m)
fróðr wise, clever, well-informed (especially in history) (adj)
frœði lore, history; knowledge (f and n)
frœkn brave, valiant (adj)
frœknliga bravely; manfully (adv)
frost frost (n)
Frosti Frosti, Frosty (personal name)
frú mistress, lady (f)
frum-vaxta grown up (just) (adj)
fryja (ð) taunt; fryja hugar - questions one's courage (v)
fugl, fogl bird (m)
fuglakyn family or species of bird (f)
fuglsrödd the speech of a bird, a bird's voice (f)
fúinn rotten, decayed (adj)
ful-komlīka (‡) completely (adv)
ful-kompna (‡) perfect, fulfill (v)
fúll, full foul, unpleasant (adj)
fullkominn complete; established (adj)
full-mælt spoken too much
fullr full; in full swing; full outlaw; fullr af - filled with; fullu - in full; til fullra laga - the the full extent of the law (adj)
fullsteikinn fully roasted (adj)
fullting help, aid (n)
full-trúi patron (diety) (m)
fúna rot, decay (v)
Fundinn Fundin (personal name), foundling
fundr battle; meeting; finding, discovery; á fund , til fundar við - meet, find; koma á fund - come to a meeting with (m)
funi flame (m)
furðuliga terribly
fuss, fúss eager, willing; eager for (adj)
fyl foal (n)
fylgð help, support; guidance; party, followers; following; til fylgðar við - accompany (f)
fylgja (gð) follow, accompany; help, give help to; side with; be attached to, belong to; attend to, be a quality of; hold together; serve; appertain to (v)
fylki province (n)
fylking battle array, host (f)
fylkir king (m)
fylkja draw up (in battle array) (v)
fylla (d) fill; complete; fulfill; increase (v)
fyr(ir)nema deprive one of speech, make silent (v)
fyrðar men, people (pl)
fyrir before, preceding; ahead, in front, before, first, at the head of (leading); at hand, present; along, against; ago; above, superior to; for, on behalf of; for, because of; by, by means of; in spite of, against; in return, in retaliation; in the way; along the coast; fyrir austan / norðan / sunnan / vestan - in the east / north / south / west; fyrir borð - overboard; fyrir innan - inside; fyrir neðan - below; fyrir ofan - above; fyrir þér - on your hands; fyrir útan - outside; out beyond; þar fyrir - instead of; on behalf of; before (of time); during; (prep); fyrir því at, fyrir þat er - because (conj)
fyrir ahead, in front, before; before; first, before; at hand, present;
fyrir stundu time (a short time ago)
fyrirbjoða forbid (v)
fyrr before, previously, sooner; fyrr en - before, sooner than, until (adv)
fyrri former, previous, before; inn fyrri dagr - the day before; í fyrra vetur - the winter before (adj)
fyrri previously, sooner (adv)
fyrrum formerly, before (adv)
fyrst first (adv)
fyrsta beginning; í firstu, í førstænæ - at first (f)
fyrsti (‡) first (adv)
fyrstr first, foremost, earliest (adj)
fyrtelia (-talða) recount, recite
fysa encourage (v)
fýsa (t) urge, encourage; (impers.) desire (v)
fýsa, fysa urge, encourage; desire; braut fýsir mik - I desire to depart, I am in haste to depart; fýsask í braut - be eager to go away (v)
fýst desire (f)
Old Norse --- English --- Top a æ b c d e f g h i j k l m n o œ p r s t u v w y z þ
gā (‡) go (v)
gá (ð) heed (v)
gæfa luck; bera gæfu til við - have good fortune in dealings with one (f)
gæfr reasonable; mild (adj)
gæfuleysi lucklessness (n)
gæfumaðr lucky man (m)
gæfumunr difference in fortune, turn or shift of luck (m)
gægjask (ð) gaze, bend forward to see, glare (v)
gær in; í gær - yesterday
gæta (tt) guard, attend to, tend, watch over; take care of; keep watch; fá alls gætt - take care of everything (v)
gætinn wary, careful (adj)
gætir keeper, guard (m)
gaflveggr gable-wall (m)
gafs (‡) given (was given) (v)
gagn advantage; koma at gagni - be of service (n)
gagn-dagr minor rogation day (day of prayer and fasting in Western Christianity) (m)
gagnsamr helpful (adj)
gagnsemð helpfulness (f)
gagnvart opposite (prep)
gala scream (v)
galeið galley (f)
galti boar (wild)
gamall old (adj)
gaman pleasure, delight; entertainment; þykkja gaman at - take pleasure in (n)
Gamli Gamli (personal name), the Old One
Gandálfr Gandalf (personal name), Staff-elf
gandr staff (magic staff) or spirit
ganga go, walk; advance; take place; extend; go on, last; turn out; ganga af - leave, go from; ganga á - encroach upon; ganga at - attack; go up to; ganga bezt fram - be foremost in battle; ganga eptir - be proved true; ganga frá - depart; ganga fram - proceed, go forth, advance; ganga fyrstr - walk in front; ganga í - enter into; ganga í sundr - be rent, shattered; í gegn gandask- attack each other; ganga samu - come together, close; láta ganga tǫlu - utter speech; ganga vel - turn out well for one; ganga til - go up to, go toward; þer gangi gott til - your intentions are good; ganga undan - draw back from; ganga undi(r) - submit, accept; ganga upp - go ashore; be used up; ganga við - confess; ganga yfir - befall, happen to; gangask við um - improve in (v)
ganga procession, a walking, course (f)
ganga við confess (v)
Gangleri Gangleri (personal name, mythlogical), Wanderer, the false name adopted by the Swedish king Gylfi
gap gap, gaping, chasm
gapa gape (v)
garðr enclosed space, yard; farmyard, enclosure; court; fence; dwelling-place; stronghold, castle (m)
Garðs-konungr Byzantine emperor (m)
gargan snake
garpr bold, daring, courageous, or warlike man or woman; dauntless man, gallant fellow (term of endearment) (m)
gás goose (f)
gata way, path, road (f)
gáta riddle (f)
gátt door-opening
gaumr attention, heed; gefa at gaum - pay attention to (m)
Gautar the Goths (m pl)
geð affection, liking; mind; disposition; wits; sense; inclination (n)
geðjaðr agreeable (adj)
gefa give, grant; give in marriage; (impers.) be obtainable; gefr byri - one gets a favorable wind; var hon mjǫk gefin til fjár - she was married to him mainly for his money (v)
gefandi giver, host (m)
gegn giver (m)
gegn against, towards, to, meet (prep)
gegn back, again; in opposition (adv)
gegna (d) mean, bode; suited for, be suitable for (v)
gegnt opposite (prep)
geigr injury (serious) (m)
geil lane (f)
geirr spear; point of anvil (m)
geir-vangr shield, 'spear field' (m)
geisa rage (v)
geisl staff, goad; beam of light (m)
geit she-goat (f)
geldingr wether, gelded sheep (m)
gellir yeller, screamer
Gellisson Gellir's son
gera make; do, act; gera sé mikit um - make much of or admire; gerask - become, come to pass, occur, happen (v)
gera (ð) do, perform; act; make, build, compose; finish (v)
gerning (‡) deed (f)
gestr guest (m)
geta get; beget, obtain, persuade, be able to, get done; speak of, mention; guess, think, suppose; relate, tell of; engender; (with ppart.) be able to, get done; be obtainable; (with infin.) happen to (do); gett at - get agreement from, persuade; [hon] man láta getit - [she] will have it told; þess er getit - it is told; be able to; geta veiddan fisk - be able to catch fish; getask at - like, love; ef korn gæti at kaupa - if corn could be bought; sem fastast gat hann - as fast as he could; (v)
geyja scoff at; revile; bark; geyja á - abuse; geymðr - safe (v)
geyma guard; watch (v)
geysa rush forth with violence; rushing furiously (v)
gífr troll; troll-kind (n)
gīgha (‡) fiddle (f)
gil gorge, ravine (n)
gildi feast; guild; payment due, tribute, offerings or compensation; recompense, return (n)
gildisbrœðr guild-brethren (m pl)
gildr fine, worthy, great; of great value; valued at (adj)
Gimlé Gimle, hall inhabited by Light Elves
gin mouth (of an animal) (n)
gína gape, yawn (v)
Ginnarr Ginnar (personal name), Betrayer
ginnheilagr sacred, most holy
ginning deception, tricking (f)
ginnregin powers (pl.) (mighty powers)
ginnung space (mighty space), abyss, void
Ginnungagap Ginnungagap, the yawning or gaping void, the primeval void from which the world was created (f)
ginstan (‡) at once, forthwith
gin-værda (‡) difficulty (f)
gipt gift
gipta give in marriage (v)
gipta good luck
giptumaðr lucky man (m)
girnas desire for oneself (v)
girnd desire
gísl hostage; bailiff; warder (m)
gista (t) pass the night; lodge (v)
gisting lodging (night-lodgings) (f)
Gizurr Gizur (personal name)
gjaf-orð marriage arrangement; fá gjaf-orð - make a match (n)
gjald tribute; payment; reward; tax; compensation; wergild (n)
gjalda pay; pay compensation; repay, requite; redeem; give; give something as recompense for something; atone or pay for; suffer on account of (v)
gjálfrmarr ship; 'steed of the sea' (m)
gjalla yell, scream; bellow; twang (of a bowstring) (v)
Gjallarhorn Gjallarhorn, Yelling Horn, the horn blown by the god Heimdall to announce the beginning of Ragnarok
Gjalpar skær wolf
gjarn eager, willing (adj)
gjarna, gjarnan willingly (adv)
gjǫf gift (f)
gjǫr food (n)
gjósa gush, burst out; erupt (v)
gjóta cast (v)
glaða gladden (v)
glaðliga gladly, heartily (adv)
glaðmæltr cheerful in speech (adj)
glaðr glad, cheerful, merry (adj)
glæd-hias rejoice (v)
Glámr Glam (personal name)
Glám-sýni Glam sight', illusion (n)
glaumr merry noise (m)
gleði gladness, merriment (f)
gleidr bowlegged (adj)
gler-tǫlr glass beads (f pl)
glettask meddle with (v)
gleypa (t) swallow (v)
glíkligr likely
glíma wrestling (f)
glita (að) glitter (v)
Glitnir Glitnir, silver hall belonging to the god Forseti
glóa glow, shine, glitter (v)
gløggr clear, clear-sighted
Glói Gloi (personal name), Glow
glotta grin; glotta við tǫn - grin contemptuously (showing the teeth) (v)
glugga-þykkn clouds (dense clouds with opening in them) (f)
gluggr window (f)
glymja roar; resound; dash noisily, clatter, rattle, clash (v)
gnæfa (ð) high (to rise high), tower (v)
gnaga gnaw (v)
gnat clashing (n)
gnata (að) crash (v)
gnegg=hnegg neigh(ing) (n)
gnesta crack, clash (v)
Gnitaheiðr Gnitaheath, the heath where Fafnir, as a dragon, lies upon great wealth (f)
gnógr enough; plenty (of); gnógt - plenty
gnótt abundance, plenty (f)
gnúa rub (v)
gnyja roar; splash against (v)
gnýr clash, din; gnýr malma - battle, 'clash of weapons' (m)
goð, guth god (heathen) (n)
goðahús temple (n)
goðgá blasphemy (f)
goði chief, chieftain; priest (m)
góði profit (m)
goðorð chieftaincy (n)
góðr brave; good, fine; liberal (adj)
góðvili goodwill (m)
Goðvinasun Gothvinasun (personal name)
gœðalauss barren; useless (adj)
göfugr noble, distingished, worshipful (adj)
gólf floor (n)
gómr gum (of mouth) (m)
gōnga (‡) go (v)
Göngu-Hrólfr Hrolf the Walker (personal name)
gøra make, build; write, compose; make a story of; give, offer; act, do; become, turn out, happen; gøra meira af sér - give a better account of oneself; gøra til - prepare; earn; gøra til saka við - commit offenses against one; gøra við - prevent; send; cause (to be); gøra sik djarfan - display boldness; gørask á - arise; gørask af - arise from; gørask til - take trouble; gøra sek til - resort to (v)
gørð building, making; arbitration; taka menn til gørðar - choose arbitrators (f)
Gormr Gorm (personal name), first king of the Jelling dynasty in Denmark
gørr more fully (adv)
gǫrr (van) made, built; done; ready; sent; done for, finished off (adj)
gørsimi treasure (f)
gørviligr capable, enterprising (adj)
gotar men (m pl)
Gotar Goths, (pl) the Goths
goti steed (m)
gott benefit
góz goods (n)
gráðar læ food (hunger's bane)
gráðr hunger (m)
graðungr bull (m)
græs (‡) grass (n)
grafa dig; engrave, inlay; grafa niðr - bury; grafinn nið - rooted to the ground (v)
gramer (‡) fierce; fiend
gramr king
Gramr Gramr, the name of a sword (m)
granahár whisker (n)
Grani Grani, the name of Sigurd's horse (m)
grannligr slender, slim (adj)
grannr slender (adj)
grár grey (adj)
gras grass; herb; pasture; vegetation; plant (n)
gras-geilar grass-covered clefts (in the hillside) (f pl)
gráta weep (v)
grautr porridge (m)
greiðliga quickly, promptly (adv)
grein branch, division; particular, detail
greip space between fingers or talons (n)
gren lair (of a fox), foxhole (n)
gres-járn iron wire (n)
gretta (tt) sik grimace (v)
Grettir Grettir (personal name)
grēue (‡) count, earl (m)
grey bitch; dog (n)
grið peace, protection (n pl)
griða-lauss without truce
grið-kona serving-woman (f)
griðungr bull (m)
gríma mask; shadow of night (f)
grimm-ligr fierce-looking (adj)
grimmr, grym fierce; grim (adj)
grind pen, fold; gate of bars (f)
grípa grip; grípa til - take up, lay hold of (v)
gripær draft-cattle (m)
gripr animal; valuable thing (m)
griss piglet
grjót stones (n)
grjótbjǫrg rocks (n pl)
grjót-hóll rocky mound (m)
gróa grow (v)
groðkona serving-woman
Grœnlands-ferð journey to Greenland (f)
Grœnlenzkr belonging to Greenland
grœnn green (adj)
grǫf, gróf hole, pit, ditch (f)
grǫn beard; beak; lip; bregða grǫnum - draw back the lips (smile) (f)
grǫsugr grassy (adj)
gruna suspect; mik grunar - I suspect, I fancy (v)
grund ground, bottom; broad surface; surface of the earth, earth
grunlauss unsuspecting; eigi er mér grunlaust - I suspect
grunnr ground, bottom (m)
grunn-sævi shallow water (n)
grunr suspicion
grýttr, gryttr stony, rocky (adj)
Guð God (m)
guðr battle (f)
gufa smoke, vapor (f)
gull gold (n)
gull-band golden collar (n)
gull-fingrini (‡) gold ring (n)
gull-hjálmr golden helmet (m)
gullhringr gold ring (m)
gullhyrndr golden-horned (adj)
gullin-hjalti sword with golden hilt (m)
Gullveig Gullveig (personal name)
gumi man, human (m)
Gunnarr Gunnar (personal name)
Gunnhildr Gunnhild (personal name)
Gunnlǫð Gunnlath (personal name)
guth (‡) God
gyðja priestess (f)
gýgr giantess (f)
Gylfi Gylfir (personal name), king in Sweden, name of a Viking
gylla gild (v)
gyrða gird, put on (v)
gyrðingr buntline (ship/sailing term)
Old Norse --- English --- Top a æ b c d e f g h hj i j k l m n o œ p r s t u v w y z þ
haad (‡) scorn (n)
habora oar-hole
haddr hair (of head) (m)
hádegi midday, noon, high day, a roughly three hour portion of the day beginning at noon (n)
hæð height, hill (f)
hægr gentle (adj)
hæiðrs-minni (‡) memorial of honor (n)
hæið-werðr (‡) revered (adj)
hæl death (f)
hælfningr division of an army (m)
hæll heel (m)
hængæs (‡) be hanged (v)
hænsn (‡) hens
hær (‡) army
hærðr haired; mjǫk hærðr - having abundant hair
hærre (‡) taller (adj)
hætta risk, venture, stake; cease (v)
hættr dangerous; hlífum hættr - destructive to shields (adj)
haf sea, the high sea; vestr um haf - westwards over the sea (n)
haf víl lost at sea (lit 'sea trouble')
hafa (ð) have; hold, keep, possess; take; accept; wear; have intercourse with; bring, take, get; carry; hold to be true, believe; uppi haft - often mentioned; hafa sik spakan, hafa kyrt um sik - remain quiet; hafa nær - come near to; hafa í hendi - hold in one's hand; hafa með sér - bring with one; hafa nær - expose one to (peril); hafa hátt - make an outcry; hafa ilt af - get ill treatment from; hafa fram(mi) - carry on, perform; bring forward; hafa til (or fyrir) - use for; vera haft til - be the ground for (an accusation); hafa fyrir - hold to be; hauæs for - to be considered to be; hafask lind fyrir - hold shield before one (v)
há-flœðr high-tide, full-flood (f)
hafr goat (m)
Hafrsfjörðr Hafrsfjord (place name)
hafrstaka goat-skin (f)
hafskip ocean-going ship (n)
haga arrange; haga til - contrive (v)
hagall hail (m)
hagi field, meadow (m)
hagliga neatly, adeptly, skillfully (adv)
haglkorn hail-stone (n)
hagr state, condition, affairs, character; means; advantage; þér mun hagr á vera - will be well for you (m)
hagr skilled, handy (adj)
haklangr long-chinned (adj)
Hákon Hakon (personal name); Hákon jarl Grjótgarðsson - Earl Hakon, son of Grjotgard, Stone-Fence
hala haul (ship/sailing term)
halda hold, grip, hold fast; keep, retain; steer, direct; protect; last, hold good, remain; halda at (or til) - go to, sail to; halda fram - hold a course; halda í haf - put out to (open) sea; halda inn með - make one's way into; halda saman - fasten together; halda tal af - value the counsel of; gieta sic uppi haldit - succeed in maintaining oneself; halda á - hold in hand, wield, carry; halda á brottu - make off; halda medh - take the side of; halda undan - run away; halda við flótta - be on the point of fleeing; halda undan - fly, flee; halda sveit - hold command over a troop; halda upp - hold up; halda við - stand or hold against; haldask - hold, last (v)
haldorðr true of word
Hálfdanarhaugar Halfdan's mounds (m pl)
Hálfdanarson Halfdan's son
Hálfdanr Haldan (personal name); Hálfdanr svarti - Haldan the Black, 9th century Norwegian king and father of Harald Shaggyhair/Fairhair
hálfr half; hálfu - by half; by far, twice as much
halftroll halftroll
hallæri famine (n)
Halland Halland, Denmark, now part of Sweden (place name)
hallargólf hall-floor (n)
Hallgerðr Hallgertha (personal name), Gunnar's wife
hallr leaning, sloping; hill-side; hallr í göngu - stooped, walking with a stoop (n)
hálmr straw (m)
hálmþúst flail (n)
halr man, hero (m)
hals tack (ship/sailing term)
háls ridge; hill-crest
háls neck (m)
halsa clew up (haul the lower corners of a square-rig sail up to the yard by means of the clew lines) (v) (ship/sailing term)
haltr lame (adj)
hamargnipa peak of a crag (f)
hamarr hammer; crag, cliff (m)
hamar-skapt hammer handle (n)
hamars-muðr end of hammer-head (m)
hamar-spor mark of a hammer's blow (n)
ham-hleypa skin-changing witch (f)
hamingja luck (f)
hamingju-leysi want of luck (n)
hamla oar-thong; láta síga á hǫmlu - back oars, back out of the line of battle (f) (ship/sailing term)
hamla (að) back oars, fall back (v)
hamr skin, shape; abode (m)
Hánarr Hanar (personal name)
handan on the other side of (prep)
handarvanr handless, bereft of a hand, lacking a hand, one-armed
hand-genginn having become a retainer
handleggr arm (m); upper arm and forearm (m pl)
handsal handshake; shaking hands in conclusion of an agreement (n usually pl)
handtaka capture; seize (v)
hangæs (‡) be hanged (v)
hani cock (m)
hann he (pron)
hans his (pron)
hanzki glove (m)
happ good luck, fortune (n)
happ-fróðr wise in season
hár high, tall, lofty; loud (adj)
hár hair (n)
Hár Har (personal name), Greyhair
Haraldr Harald (personal name); Haraldr blátönn - Harald Bluetooth, king of Denmark (958-987 AD); Haraldr harðráði - Harald the Ruthless, Norwegian king (1045-1066); Haraldr hárfagri - Harald Fairhair also Haraldr lúfa - Harald Shaggyhair, Norwegian king who reigned from ca. 860-930; Klakk-Haraldr - Klakk Harald
harðaz fiercest (adj)
harðfengiliga stoutly (adv)
harðhugaðr hard-hearted; ruthless; resolute (adj)
harðliga fiercely; terribly (adv)
harðr hard, difficult; severe, sharp (adj)
harðráðr hard in council, tyrannical, ruthless (adj)
harð-ræði hardihood; experience of hardship (n)
harðsnúinn well-prepared, well-knit, staunch (adj)
hárfagr fair-haired (nickname) (adj)
hárfagri fair-haired (adj)
hār-klæðhe (‡) hair shirt (n)
harma grieve, vex (v)
harmfullr sorrowful; filled
harmr sorrow, grief (m)
harp-sláttr playing the harp (m)
harr sea
hárr grey-haired, hoary, grey-bearded; (a name of Odin)
hart hard; sharply
hásæti throne, high-seat, seat of honor (n)
háseti oarsman (m) crew (m pl)
hásin tendon, hamstring sinew
háski danger, harm (m)
hástokkr? gunwale?
hata (að) damage, destroy (v)
hath (‡) hate (n)
Hati Hati, the wolf that pursues the moon (m)
hátt loudly; aloud; hafa hátt - make an outcry (adv)
hátta arrange; háttaðr - fashioned (v)
háttaðr fashioned
Hattargriði Hott's guardian
háttatal list of meters or verse forms (n)
hattr hood (m)
háttr custom, manner, kind, type; (m); activity, habits, behavior (m pl); einskis háttar - of no importance
hauga-brot grave destruction; breaking open of a grave-mound (n)
hauga-eldr grave fire, fire from graves (m)
haugbúi ghost, undead man (m)
haugr burial mound; grave mound; mound (m)
Haugspori Haugspori, Mound-river
hauknefr hawknose
haukr hawk (m)
haukstrǫnd arm, 'hawk-strand' (f)
hausakljufr cleaver (skull cleaver)
hauss skull (m)
haust autumn, harvest season (n)
hausta draw near to autumn (v)
hávaðamikill noisy, self-assertive (adj)
hdla lay hands on (v)
heðan, héðan hence, from here; heðan af - from now on, henceforth (adv)
hēdher-līca (‡) worthily, meritoriously (adv)
hēdher-līcer (‡) glorious (adj)
hēdhra (adh) (‡) honor (v)
heðinn fur cloak, coat
heðra here, hither
hefill clew line (ship/sailing term)
hefja lift, raise, heave; begin; hold; hefja blót - hold sacrifices (v)
hefna (d) avenge, take revenge (v)
hefnd vengeance (f)
hegnan (‡) aid (f)
hégómi folly (f)
hegri heron
heiðar-brún edge of the heath (f)
heiðinn heathen
heiðir hawk (m)
heiðni heathendom (f)
heiðr bright, clear (adj)
heiðr heath (on high ground), moor (f)
Heiðrekr Heithrek (personal name)
Heiðrún Heidrun, a goat that gives mead in Välhöll (m)
heilagr holy, sacred; protected; heilgir fiskar - halibuts (adj)
heili brain (m)
heill luck (good luck); good omen (n and f)
heill hale; sound, safe; healthy, unscathed, in health; healed; blessed, happy; whole, complete; eivi heill - pregnant (adj)
heill Hail! bæði heila hittask - bade god-speed to meet again
heil-raðr giving wholesome counsel
heil-ræði wholesome counsel (n)
heilsa greet (v)
heim home; homeward; to(wards) the house (adv)
heima home (n); at home (adv)
heima-maðr man of the household (m)
heiman from home; from the dwelling (adv)
Heimdallr Heimdall, the watchman god, who guards the rainbow-bridge; one of the Æsir; World-radiance (m)
heimdragi stay-at-home (m)
heimili home, homestead (n)
heimisgarðar courtyards of a house (pl.), homestead(s), premises
heimr region; world, earth; heima í millim, í milli heims ok heljar - between life and death (m)
heimskr foolish (adj)
heimstǫð homestead
heimta (t) recover; claim; get back; draw, summon (v)
heimull er heimult - one who has a right; var þat heimult gǫrt - permission was granted
heir-strenging solemn vow (f)
heit promise (n)
heita call, name, give a name to, call on; promise; be called, be named; pray to (v)
heitr hot (adj)
hel hell; Hel, abode of the dead, separate from Vahalla, and ruled over by a goddess of the same name; death; í hel - to death (f)
heldr rather; [after neg] on the contrary; at heldr - all the more; heldr en - rather than, more than (adv)
heldr nay
helgistaðr holy place (m)
helgrind hell gate, gate of hell (f)
hella flat stone, flagstone (m)
hellir cave (m)
hellusteinn flat stone, flat slab of rock, flagstone (m)
helmingr half; í helminga - in halves; equally (m)
hel-vegr road to hell (m)
helzt most willingly; most of all; exceedingly (adv)
helzti very; all too (adv)
Hengjankjapta Hengjankjapta, a giantess killed by Thor (f)
hennar her, hers
heppinn lucky; fortunate (adj)
hepta hinder, make difficulty; bind, fetter; hold back, restrain (v)
Hepti Hepti, Haft
hér here; hér af - from this (adv)
herað district, country (n)
herbergi lodgings, quarters (n)
herða clench, harden (v)
herðar shoulders, upper part of back (f pl)
herfang booty; at herfangi - as booty (n)
herfiligr wretched, shameful, bitter, harsh (adj)
herja (að) raid, harry; plunder; make war (v)
Herjólfsfjörðr Herjolf's Fjord (place name) (m)
Herjólfsnes Herjólfsnes; Herjólf's Headland (place name) (n)
herklæða (dd) herklæða sik - put armor on (v)
herklæði armor (n pl)
herknungr warrior-king (m)
herlið army, war-force (n)
hermaðr warrior (m)
hernaðr plundering, raid (m)
herǫr war-arrow (f)
herr army, troops, host; great number (m)
herr harrier, destroyer
herra lord (m)
hersir regional military leader in Norway; chieftain (m)
herskapr harrying, warfare (m)
hertogi commander; duke (m)
hervápn weapons (military) (n pl)
Hervarðr Hervarth (personal name)
Hervǫr Hervor (personal name)
hestr horse, stallion (m)
heygja (ð) bury; bury in a mound (v)
heyja-annir haymaking season (f pl)
heyra (ð) hear, hear of; heyra til - hear a sound from; ekki lét heyra sín - did not let a sound be heard from him (v)
hey-verk hay-making (n)
hey-virki hay-making (n)
here (n)
hielp (‡) help (f)
Hildr Hildr (personal name), a valkyrie
hildr battle (f)
hilmir chief, king (m)
hime-rike (‡) heaven (m)
Himinbjörg Himinbjorg, place where Bifröst enters Ásgarðr (n pl)
himinioðurr horizon or precinct of heaven, rim of heaven, sky
himinn heaven, sky (m)
hindrvitni superstition, heathenism (f)
hingat to here, hither; hingat til - hitherto, up to this time, until now (adv)
hinn this (one); that; the; the other one; á hinn fótinn - on the other foot (prep)
hinna membrane (f)
hirð court; a king's or earl's bodyguard; the king's men, retainers (f)
hirða (ð) keep; mind, care, care for, hide, conceal; keep in a box or chest; hirðumat fælask - let us not be frightened (v)
hirðir herdsman (m)
hirðmaðr king's man; retainer (m)
hirzla possession; keeping (f)
hít skin-bag (f)
hiti heat; flame (m)
hitta (tt) hit, find, meet; come to; come upon; arrive at; visit, call on, meet with; meet each other; hit upon; go to see; hitta á - come upon, find; hitta rað - devise a plan; hittask - meet one (v)
Old Norse --- English --- Top a æ b c d e f g h hj i j k l m n o œ p r s t u v w y z þ
hjá by, near; with; at one's place; beside, at the side of; compared with; close by (prep)
Hjaðningavíg the fight of the Hjadnings (n)
hjala chatter (v)
hjaldr (rs) battle (m)
hjallr platform (m)
Hjálmarr Hjalmar (personal name)
hjálmr helmet, helm (m)
hjálmrǫðull sword (m)
hjalmstallr head (the support of the helmet) (m)
hjálp help (f)
hjálpa help, save (v)
Hjálprekr Hjalprek, legendary king (m)
hjalt efra hjaltit - pommel of the sword; fremra hjaltit - sword guard; (n)
Hjarðarholt Hjarðarholt, Herd's Hill (place name) (n)
hjarn hard snow (n)
hjarta heart (n)
hjartablóð heart's blood (n)
hjarta-horn hart's horn (n)
hjölm tiller (ship/sailing term)
hjǫlt hilt (of a sword) (n pl)
hjǫrð herd, flock; herding (f)
hjǫrleikr sword-play (m)
hjǫrr sword
hjörtr hart, stag (m)
Hjǫrvarðr Horvarth (personal name)
hjú household (n pl)
hlað pavement (in front of homestead) (n)
hlaða barn (f)
hlaða load; pile (v)
hladhqnd clean hands
hlæja smile; laugh (v)
hlakka scream; cry (v)
hlam clashed, clanged (v)
hlátr laughter (m)
hlaup run; running; taka hlaup - take a run; (n)
hlaupa leap, spring; run; climb; fall down on; mount; hlaupa á - trample on; hlaupa at - leap at, assault; hlaupa undan - run away, flee (v)
Hleiðargarðr Hleiðargarð, the court of Hrolf Kraki; Hleithargarth, Lejre
Hleiðra modern Lejre in Denmark; royal seat of king Hrolf Kraki
Hlévangr Hlevang (personal name), Lee-plain
hleypa gallop; make run; break up (the court) (v)
hlið side; mountain-side, hill-side; slope (f)
Hliðarendi Hlidarendi, Slope's End (place name)
Hliðskjálf Hlidskjalf, the seat on which Odin sits in his hall Valaskjálf
hlíf shield; cover, protection; shelter (f)
hlifa, hlifá protect, shelter; show mercy (v)
hlíta trust, rely on (v)
hljóð silence, hearing (n)
hljóðlyndr taciturn (adj)
hljóðr silent, quiet (adj)
hljóta receive; get (as one's lot); be allocated; result; be obliged to (v)
hlœgi-ligr laughable (adj)
hlœgja gladden (v)
hlǫkk clash; battle
hlǫm sound (crashing sound)
Hlórriði Thor (poetic) (m)
hlunnr, hlummr oar handle (ship/sailing term)
hluta get (as one's lot); cast lots; hlutask til - interfere in, take part in; lutapi bort - decide by lot who was to depart; hlutaðr til - selected by lot (v)
hluti fate; lot; part; mestr hluti - most of (m)
hlutr part, piece, thing; portion; purpose; meiri hlutr - majority; eiga hlut í - take part in; (m)
hlut-skipti sharing of booty (n)
hlyða prosper (v)
hlýða (dd) listen to, hear; (impers.) be allowable; succeed; hlýðir - one endures (v)
hlýðni obedience; assistance (f)
hneggja neigh (v)
hneppr scant
hneykja shame (f)
hníga sink; fall gently; (ppart.) open; hniginn í aldr - elderly, advanced in years (v)
hnipinn downcast, drooping (adj)
hnit clash (n)
hnjóða rivet, to clench rivets (v)
hnjósku-lindi belt of tinder or amadou ("tinder fungus", useful for starting slow-burning fires) (m)
hnoss ornament, costly thing (n)
hnúka sit cowering (v)
hnykkja (ð, t) pull violently, yank (v)
hodd-dofi stinginess (m)
hœfa (ð) befall (v)
hœgindi pillow, cushion (n)
hœgr easy, convenient, possible; comfortable; suitable, expedient; docile, affable; skillful, agile; gentle, reasonable; hœgri - right, the right hand (comp)
hœgri right (adj)
hœla praise, flatter, boast of (v)
Hœnir Hoenir, a god (m)
hœnsa chicken
hœnsn hens (n pl)
hœta threaten (v)
hœttr dangerous
hof farm, farmstead; temple (n)
hóf proportion; at hófi - tolerably (n)
hǫfðingh_legr (‡) princely
hǫfðingi leader; chieftain; captain; chief, ruler (m)
hǫfðingja-sonr son of a chief (m)
hǫfðingliga generously; in princely fashion (adv)
hǫfgi sleep, drowsiness
höfn, hǫfn harbor; holding, possession (f)
Hofsland the Hof estate (n)
Hófsmaðr just man; man of moderation (m)
Hofsverjar the people of Hof (m pl)
höfuð, hǫfuð head; person (n)
höfuðbenda, hofurbendur shroud (ship/sailing term)
hǫfuðdúkr hood
höfuðsbani death (m)
hǫfuð-smátt opening for the head (in a garment) (f)
höfuðstaðr chief place; capital (m)
hǫfuðstafn prow; beak (m) (ship/sailing term)
högg, hǫgg blow, stroke, chop; beheading, execution; hǫggva í millum - between strokes (n)
hǫgg-fœri striking distance, reach of the sword (n)
hǫgg-orrosta close hand-to-hand fight (f)
höggspjót broad-bladed spear (n)
höggva, hǫggva strike (a blow); cut, chop, hack, hew; behead; slaughter; carve; hǫggva til - strike (at); hǫggva í - smite against or into, cleave (v)
hōgh-tiið (‡) holy day (f)
hógvær gentle (adj)
hol hole, hollow (n)
hold flesh (n)
hǫlðr, hǫldr man, hero (m)
hǫlkn flat, hard rock (n)
hóll hill, hillock, knoll (m)
Hóll Hol, hill (place name) (m)
höll, hǫll hall; há foldar hǫll - the high hall of the world, the heavens (f)
hollr loyal (adj)
Hólmgarðr Holmgard, modern Novgorod (place name)
Hólmgarðsfari voyager to Hólmgarðr (m)
holr hollow (adj)
hol-sár wound in a vital part (n)
holt wood, woodland, forest; rough, stony hill or ridge (n)
hon she (pron)
hǫnd, hönd hand, arm and hand; side, part; taka í hǫnd - take on by the hand; selja í hǫnd - put into one's hand, hand over to; til handa - for one to possess or marry; í hendr - into one's possession; Guði á hendi - into God's keeping; báðum hǫndum - with open arms; í hǫnd - at once, continuously; undir hendi sér - (hidden) under his arm-pit; á báðar hændr, til beggja handa - right and left; pinnar handar - on your part; hvárratveggju handar - for both parties; á hendr, í hendr - against; af hendi - on behalf of (f)
hǫndla seize; lay hands on (v)
hopas til (‡) put hope in (v)
Hörðaland Hordaland (place name) (n)
hórdómr adultery, whoredom (m)
horfa turned in a certain direction; gaze; look (in a particular direction); horfa á - look at; hversu horfir - what turn things have taken (v)
hǫrfa (að) recoil; give way (v)
hǫrgr sanctuary (outdoor sanctuary), (stone) altar, temple
horn horn; drinking horn; corner (n)
Hornbori Hornbori (personal name)
hörr, hǫrr flax, linen, bow-string (m)
horskr wise, sensible (adj)
hōs (‡) near, by (prep)
Höskuldsstaðir Hoskuldsstadir, Hoskuld's farmstead (place name)
hǫss (van) gray (adj)
hósti cough (m)
hót bit, whit (n)
hóti slightly, a little (adv)
hǫttr hood (m)
Höttr, Hǫttr Hott (personal name), Hood (the Masked One) (m)
hǫuss (‡) skull (m)
hoystr (‡) highest (adj)
hraðliga quickly (adv)
hraðr swift; fresh (adj)
hræ corpse (of the slain in battle), dead body, carrion (n)
hræða (dd) frighten; (refl.) be afraid of, be frightened (v)
hræddr frightened, afraid (adj)
hræzla fear, terror (f)
hrafn raven (m)
hrafnasueltir coward (raven starver)
hrakning humiliation; insult (f)
hramm-þviti gold, 'arm stone' (m)
Hrani Hrani (personal name)
hrapa (að) rush (v)
hrapalliga headlong (adv)
hrata (að) tumble, fall (v)
hraun lava; boulder-strewn rocky ground (n)
hraustliga bravely (adv)
hraustligr dauntless; strong of heart (adj)
hraustr brave, stout-hearted (adj)
Hreðmarr Hreidmar (personal name); the father of Otr, Fafnir and Regin (m)
hregg storm, storm and rain (n)
hreinn reindeer (m)
hrekja drive away; hrekja af máli - force one to abandon a lawsuit; hrekjask fyrir - be confounded by (v)
hrelling affliction (f)
hreppa catch; obtain (v)
hreyfa move, stir (v)
hreysti courage, valor (f)
hreystimaðr champion, a valiant man (m)
hríð time, while; storm; attack, battle; onset; um hrið - for a time; storm; onset, attack (f)
hrim rime (n)
hrímþurs frost-giant (m)
Hrímþursar the Frost Giants (m pl)
hrína neigh; hrina við - neigh to a horse (v)
hrinda push, shove; drive, drift; ratt af sér - threw off (v)
hringa-brynja mail coat of rings (f)
Hringariki Hringariki (place name) (n)
hring-brjótr ring distributor (m)
hringr ring, circle (m)
hrista (t) shake (v)
hrjóða clear (of defenders), strip (v)
hrjóta roll, fly, spring; snore (v)
hrodi snot
hróðr (rs) praise; encomium (m)
hrœra (ð) move, stir (v)
hrœsinn boastful (adj)
hrøkkva fall back, recoil (v)
Hrólfr Hrolf (personal name); Hrólfr kraki - Hrolf Kraki, legendary Danish king (m)
hrósa praise; boast (v)
hross horse; mare (n)
hrossakjǫt horse-flesh (n)
Hrotti the name of a sword (m)
hrúga heap
Hrungnir Hrungnir, a giant killed by Thor with his hammer (m)
hrútr ram (m)
Hrútsstaðr Hrutsstadir (place name); Hrut's farmstead (m)
hryggr back
hrynja fall, collapse; flow, stream; fall loosely (of clothing); látum und honum hryja lukla - let keys jangle about him; hrynja á hæla - shut upon one's heels (v)
húð hide (f)
huð-fat leather hammock (n)
huð-keipr skin-covered canoe (m)
húfr hull (ship/sailing term)
huga (að) think out, excogitate (v)
hugall thoughtful (adj)
hugarbót consolation (f)
huggan comfort, consolation (f)
huglausi cowardly
hugleikinn entranced, in a trance; intense(ly)
hugr mind; mood; thought; heart; desire; spirit; temper; courage; koma í hug - occur to one; hafa í hug - intend; heart,spirit; í hugum góðum - glad at heart; courage; hugar eigandi - courageous; desire; í hug - to one's mind; leggja allan hug á - set one's whole heart on (m)
hug-ró clinch on a sword's hilt (f)
hugsa (að) consider, think over; determine (v)
hugsjúkr distressed, anxious, worried (adj)
hulða sheath, cover (f)
hunangsfall honey-dew (f)
hundr hound, dog (m)
hundrað hundred; tólfrætt hundrað = 120; tírætt hundrað = 100 (n)
hungr hunger; svelta hungri - starve, die of hunger (m)
huræ how?
hurð door (f)
hurðarflaki hurdle (m)
hús house; room of house (n); farm (n pl)
húsabœr farmstead (m)
húsfreyja lady of the house; housewife (f)
hūs-frūghæ (‡) wife (house wife) (f)
húsgørð house-building (f)
húskarl servant, retainer; farmhand; king's man (m)
hús-konæ (‡) bondwoman (f)
húsl sacrifice (n)
hūþ-strȳkæ (‡) beat, flog (v)
hvaðan whence, from where, from everywhere (adv)
hværr-tveggja (‡) both, each of two (pron)
hvalkváma stranding of a whale (f)
hváll hill, hillock, knoll (m)
hvalnum whale (m)
hvalr whale (m)
hvalrif whale-rib (n)
hvar where; everywhere; hvar sem - wherever (adv)
hvarfa (að) walk, go (v)
hvargi everywhere; hvargi sem - wherever, wheresoever (adv)
hvárgi neither (of two) (adj pron); hvárki…né - neither…nor (conj)
hvárr both; who, which (of two)?; each (of two); at hváru - yet, however (pron and adj)
hvárrtvegi, hvárrtvegja both, each of two (pron)
hvárt whether; (introduces direct question); however; hvart er - can it be? (adv)
hvass sharp, keen; prickly (adj)
hvassara more keenly (adv)
hvat what; vel hvat - everything; hvat sem - whatever (pron)
hvata go; hasten (v)
hvati one who incites; hvati hjǫrleiks - bold warrior (m)
hvatki whatsoever
hvatvetna anything whatever; everything (pron)
hvé how? (adv)
hveðrungr monster (m)
hveim to whom, for whom (pron)
hveitiakr wheat-field (m)
hveiti-ax ear of wheat (n)
hverfa disappear; be lost, be missing; turn; hverfa á brottu - disappear; hverfa af - vanish from; hverfa aptr - turn back, return; hverfa frá - give up, turn away; hverfa saman - assemble; vinsældum horfinn - popular (v)
hverfr changeable (n)
hverfr quickly (adv)
hvergi nowhere; not at all; nowhere on (adv)
hvergi, hverrgi each, every one (pron)
hvernig, hvernug how, in what way (adv)
hverr who, which?; what; each, every, all; ein hverr - any one (of several) (pron)
hversdagliga commonly, usually (adv)
hversu how, however; just how (adv)
hvert to where, whither; hvert er - whithersoever (adv)
hvessa sharpen; hvessa augun á - look keenly at, glare at (v)
hvetja whet, sharpen; encourage (v)
hví why? (adv)
hvíla bed (f)
hvíla (ð, d) rest, lie, sleep (v)
hvílð rest, pause
Hvinir Hvinir (place name)
hvirfill crown of the head (m)
hvíta-aurr mud (white mud) (?)
hvít-faldinn with white headdress
hvítingr drinking-horn (m)
hvítna become white (v)
hvítr white, shining (adj)
hwæim (‡) to whom
hwalf (‡) vault (n)
hwilkæn (‡) whever; he who (pron)
hȳ-bȳli homestead, home (n pl)
hyggiandi thought, intellect, mind
hyggja (hugði, hugaðr) think, believe; give heed to; observe; see; intend, mean; anxiety; hyggja at - look at, consider; give heed to; be desirous of; attend; hearken; hydggja at gátu - guess the riddle; kunna hyggja - understand (the art of); hugat mælaak - speak sincerely; hugðisk falla - he thought he would fall (v)
hylja bury, cover over, conceal, hide (v)
hylli loyalty, allegiance, favor; grace (f)
hylr hole, pool (m)
hyrr fire (m)
Hyrrokkin Hyrrokkin, a giantess killed by Thor
í in, within; at (position); during (time); among; into (motion), onto; í því - at this, thereupon; í annat sinn - (for) a second time; inn í - into (prep)
Old Norse --- English --- Top a æ b c d e f g h i j k l m n o œ p r s t u v w y z þ
ī (‡) you (pron)
í braut, í brott away (adv)
í korni squirrel (m)
í nánd nearby (adv)
í samt in a row (adv)
í sundr asunder (adv)
í því at that time (adv)
iæmbling (‡) anniversary, return of the same time in a year (f)
iæten (‡) = jǫtunn giant
iak (‡) I
Iari Iari (personal name)
Iðavǫllr Ithavale (place name)
iðgjǫld compensation (n pl)
idhe-līkr (‡) diligent (adj)
iðja do, perform (v)
iðja work, task (f)
iðjumaðr hard-working man (m)
iðn occupation, work (f)
iðrask repent of (v)
iem-līca (‡) constantly (adv)
ierl (‡) earl = jarl (m)
igða nuthatch (f)
íhuga consider, try to decide (v)
íhugi resentment (m)
illa ill, badly (adv)
illi-ligr ugly, hideous
illmæli slander, calumny (n)
illr bad, evil; ugly, unpleasing; difficult; gørask ilt til - become badly off for; varð þeim ǫllum ilt af - it made them all sick; ilt - evil (counsel, treatment, etc.) (adj)
illska badness; cruelty (f)
illskaelda plagiarizer
illt evil (treatment) (f)
ill-viðri foul weather (n)
Ingibjörg Ingibjorg (personal name); Ingibjörg Hróðgeirsdóttir ins hvita - Ingibjorg, daughter of Hrodgeir the White (f)
Ingjaldr Ingjald (personal name); Ingjaldr tryggvi - Ingjald the True (m)
Ingófr Ingolf
Ingólfsfell Ingolf's Fell
Ingólfshǫfði Ingolf's Head
in-lændær (‡) native (m)
inn in, into (motion toward); within (adv)
inn, in, it the (art)
inna relate; tell; accomplish; pay; repay; inna til - make mention of (v)
innan into; within; (prep)
innan from within, outward (adv)
innanlands within the land, at home (as opposed to abroad) (adv)
innar farther in
innganga entrance (f)
inni within, inside; in-doors; within the house (adv)
inniliga exactly, minutely
inoborna unborn
iord-rīke (‡) this world (n)
iǫrovǫllr field (stony or gravelly); Stonyvales
iōrthæs (æth) (‡) be buried
iǫtunheimr realm of the giants
iǫtunn giant
ir (‡) is
írakonungr King of the Irish (m)
írland Ireland (n)
Írskr Irish (adj)
ísabrot ice breaking; við ísa-brot - when the ice broke up (in the spring) (n)
Ísland Iceland (n)
Ísleifr Isleif
Íslendingabók Book of the Icelanders (f)
íslenzkr Icelandic (adj)
íss ice, icicle (m)
ístra paunch-fat
istrumagi gut (fat gut)
it you two (pron)
íþrótt accomplishment
Ívarr Ivar (personal name ) (m)
íviðia witch, 'she who dwells in the wood', giantess
iwir-mænn (‡) superiors, lords (m pl)
Old Norse --- English --- Top a æ b c d e f g h i j k l m n o œ p r s t u v w y z þ
yes
já (ð) say 'yes', agree to (v)
jaðarr edge (m)
jafn even, equal (adj)
jafna (að) smooth, even out, tidy, trim; cut even, make equal (in comparisons), equate; jafna til - compare, liken to (v)
jafnaðr justice, equality (m)
jafnan ever, always, constantly, equally (adv)
jafn-berr exposed equally, naked or unprotected (adj)
jafn-breiðr equally broad
jafn-djúpvitr as deep-witted, as deep-scheming, as resourceful (adj)
jafn-dœgri equinox, equal length of day and night (n)
jafngamall as old, of the same age (adj)
jafningi equal (m)
jafn-langr length (of equal length)
jafn-mikill equally great, just as much
jafn-nær equally near, midway between
jafn-skjótt at once; jafn-skjótt sem - as soon as
jafn-skǫruliga so notably, so manfully
jafn-snimma at the same time
jafn-sœtr equally sweet
jafnspakir equally wise
jafnungr as young (adj)
jafn-vel even; as well
jara battle (f)
jarðfastr fixed in the earth
jarð-hús underground (n)
jarðligr earthly; worldly
jarl earl; free-born man, gentleman (m)
jarlsriki an earldom (n)
jarmr screaming (m)
jarmun-grund expanse of the earth; Ondils jarmun-grund - the sea (f)
jarn, járn iron, weapon (n)
járnleikr battle, play of iron (m)
járnsmiðr iron-smith (m)
jartegn token, evidence, proof (of a thing) (n)
játa agree to, say 'yes' (v)
jǫfnuðr equality, equal share (m)
jǫfurr king; prince (m)
jǫkull glacier; ice; icicle (m)
jól Yule, midwinter heathen feast, later applied to Christmas (n pl)
jóla-aptann Christmas Eve
Jörð Earth, as goddess and mother of Thor (f)
jörð, jǫrð earth, world; ground, soil; land (f)
Jörmundgandr Jormundgand, name of the Midgard Serpent, the world serpent (m)
Jórsalafarar crusaders (m pl)
jǫru-fægir warrior
Jótland Jutland (place name) (n)
Jötunheimr the land of the giants (m pl)
jǫtun-móðr rage (giant's rage)
jǫtunn giant (m)
Old Norse --- English --- Top a æ b c d e f g h i j k l m n o œ p r s t u v w y z þ
kaðall cable, twisted rope (m)
kæmpe (‡) champion (m)
kæra accuse, lay a charge against (v)
kærleikr affection, friendship (m)
kærr dear, close, beloved (adj)
kæsia (‡) halberd (one type of halberd), long spear (f)
kala be cold, become cold, freeze (v)
Kaldbak Cold-Back Mountain (n)
Kaldbeklingar men of Kaldbek (m pl)
kaldr cold (adj)
kálfr calf (m)
kálfskinn-skór calf-skin shoe (m)
kalla say, declare; call, cry out; name (v)
kam came
kambr comb (m)
kamphundr carrion eater
kann search (v)
kanna (að) search, explore, find out about; kannask við - recognize (v)
kapp contest, competition; spirit, ardor, courage
kapp arch
kappi champion, hero (m)
kar vessel, tub (n)
karfi ship; fast coastal rowing ship; a middle-sized cargo and troop ship (m)
karl man; old man; common man; churl; Þorsteinn karl - old Thorstein, old man Thorstein - (m)
karlmaðr man (m)
kasta (að) throw, cast (v)
kastali castle (m)
kátr cheerful; merry (adj)
katt-skinn cat-skin and fur (n)
kattskinn-glófi glove of catskin (m)
kaun sore, boil (n)
kaup bargain; wages; vera af kaupi - forfeit the reward (n)
kaupa buy; make a bargain; dýrt kaupa - pay dearly for; kaupa at - pay, hire (v)
kaupeyrir trade goods, wares, articles of trade (m)
kaupmaðr trader, merchant (m)
kaup-staðr market town (m)
kaupstefna market (f)
Keila Keila, a giantess killed by Thor (f)
keipla-brot wreckage or pieces of (Greenland) canoes (n)
keipr boat (small boat), canoe; sledge-runner (m)
kelda, kiælda fountain, spring (f)
kengr bend, arch; arbitration; beygði kenginn - arched its back (m)
kenna (d) know; perceive; taste; feel; recognize; name, tell; teach; attribute; kenna at - recognize by; þar sem holta kendi - wherever there was woodland; hvar ru kendir - name, tell; teach (v)
kenning poetical periphrasis or metaphor (f)
kenningarnafn nickname (n)
kenningar-son alleged son (m)
kenni-Valr adventurous steed (m)
kerling hag (old hag), old woman (f)
ketill cauldron (m)
Ketill Ketil (personal name)
ki not
kið kid, young goat (n)
kiðja-mjólk goat's beestings (f)
kikna (að) weaken (give way at the knees) (v)
Kíli Kili (personal name)
kind child; baby; offspring, progeny, family, kin
kinn cheek
kinn-hestr blow in the face (m)
kippa (ð, t) pull, jerk; snatch, pick up; rend (v)
kirkja church (f)
kista chest, box (f)
Kjallandi Kjallandi, giant killed by Thor (f)
kjóll ship (poetic) (m)
kjǫlr keel (m)
kjǫptr jaw (m)
kjósa choose, select; pick out something for someone, determine; acquire something for someone; kjósa sik hér - prefer to be here (v)
klæða (dd) clothe; get dressed (v)
klæði cloth, garment (n); clothing (n pl)
klaka (að) chatter (v)
klakk-laust without injury (adv)
klappa knock (v)
klettr rock, crag (m)
klífa climb (v)
Klifshagi Klifshagi (place name), Cliff Meadow (m)
kljúfa cleave, split (up) (v)
klofna (að) split, be cloven (v)
klóra scratch (v)
klyf pack (for a horse) (f)
klyfja (að) load (a horse) with pack-saddles (v)
klýpa (ð) pinch (v)
kná (knátta) can, be in a position to; be able to; may; could (v)
knáliga hardily, vigorously (adv)
knáligr hardy, vigorous (adj)
knappr knob (m)
knattarbarki ship (nail-studded ship)
kné knee (n)
kneppa (t) fasten, button; pull (v)
kneyfa drink in large gulps (v)
knífr knife (m)
knǫð duty
knoða (að) knead (v)
knörr (knarrar) ship (cargo ship); merchant vessel (m)
knǫttr ball, sphere (m)
knúi knuckle (m)
knúta knuckle-bone (f)
knútr knot (m)
Knútr Knut (personal name); Knútr inn riki - King Canute the Great (m)
knyja, knýja struggle; exert oneself; press, urge on, compel, force; knock (at the door); knýjask - struggle on (v)
kœrr dear
kǫgur-sveinn infant (m)
kol charcoal, coals, cinders (n pl)
kólf-skot arrow shot distance (n)
kollóttr bald (adj)
kollr top, summit; head (m)
koma come, arrive; reach; obtain; occur; come about; recover; koma á - the blow or missile comes upon, strikes, penetrates; koma at - come to, reach; come up; arrive at; get at, obtain; recover; koma ásamt með þeim - they agreed; koma endr at - regain; koma endr at - regain; koma fram - be set up; come to pass; koma fyrir - strike, hit; bring; send; be an equivalent, be given in compensation; come to the ears of; koma í fœri - get an opportunity; koma fœti - set foot; koma Kristni á - Christianize; koma at þeim ǫrunum - get at them with arrows; koma bogunum við - make use of the bow against them; koma ti falls - bring one to a fall; koma til - be born; arrive; come about, occur; concern one, be one's business; koma upp - result; hvar koma skal - what shall be done; ef váttum kvæmi við - one produces witnesses; bestowed; komask at - come to close quarters with; fram komask - be brought about; komask fyrir - become known to; komask ór hǫndum - escape from; komask at bak þeim - attack them in the rear; komask undan - escape, survive; komaz viðr - come against, take effect on; kominn vel á sik - accomplished; make one's way; hvar var komit - what had occurred; fyrir ván komit - past all hope; komask - make one's way; vel kominn - welcome; mjǫk komit at degi - nearly dawn; (v)
kom-at has not come (v)
kompān (‡) companion (m)
kona woman; wife (f)
kǫngull bunch, cluster (m)
Konunga-ævi Kings' Lives, Life (Story) of the Kings
konunga-stefna meeting of kings (f)
konungdómr kingdom (m)
konunge-dømæ (‡) kingdom (n)
konunghs-leker (‡) kingly (adj)
konung-maðr king’s man
konungr, kunung(h)r (‡) king (m)
konungs-garðr king’s hall and court
konungsson prince (m)
kǫpuryrði boasting (n pl)
korn corn; grain; seed (n)
kors (‡) cross (n)
körtr short, stocky man (nickname) (m)
kǫssungr, kossungr jacket (sleeveless) (m)
kosta put forth effort; cost; kosta rásar - run at great speed (v)
kostnaðr cost, expense (m)
kostr choice, alternative; offer; chance, opportunity; money available; match, marriage; state, condition, quality; terms; cost, expense; at öðrum kosti - else; otherwise; as another course; hneppir kostir - distress - (m)
køt (‡) flesh (n)
kǫttr, köttr cat (m)
køuærne (‡) dog (a little one) (n)
kráka crow (f)
kraki pole-ladder; stake (m)
kraptr strength (m)
krás delicacy, dainty (of food) (f)
krefja ask; crave, claim, demand; demand of; krefja máls - ask speech of one (v)
krellr spirit; hardihood (m)
krikta complain, cry out (v)
kringla circle, disk, orb (f)
Kristinn Christian (adj)
Kristni Christianity (f)
Kristr Christ (m)
krjúpa creep, crouch (v)
krókr hook (m)
krǫptugr strong (adj)
kross cross (m)
Krossavík Krossavik, Cross Bay or Inlet, presumably an inlet where a cross was erected, a farmstead (f)
kuensami skirt chaser
kuīgha (‡) heifer (f)
kúla hump, hunchback (f)
kumbl burial monument, mound or cairn (frequently used on Danish or Swedish rune stones in the plural); sepulchral monument (n)
kunna know, know how to; be able; feel (an emotion); blame a person for a thing; vera kann - it is possible; kunna sik - know oneself; kunna þǫkk - be grateful to; give thanks to; kunna illa - be greatly displeased or distressed by (v)
kunnandi knowledge, acccomplishments (f)
kunnigr known; wise; versed in magic; honum var kunnigt í - he had knowledge of (adj)
kunningi acquaintance (m)
kunnr known; better known (adj)
kunnusta knowledge, ability (f)
kurteisliga courteously, with dignity (adv)
kurteiss courteous, well-bred (adj)
kussari corsair (pirates who operated along the Barbary Coast of North Africa) (m)
kvæði poem (n)
kváma arrival (f)
kván wife (f)
kvángaðr married
kvángask marry (v)
kvánlauss unmarried
kveða speak, say, declare; utter; say in verse; recite; recite verse; utter a cry; call up; greet, greeting; salute; summon; kveða við - reply; kveðask - say of oneself; declare; kveðkat þik mǫnnum lika - I declare you inhuman; kváðu mik hafa - said that I should have; utter (verse), say in verse, recite, utter a cry; kveða á - fix, agree on; give orders; kveða at - give orders; mikill harmr er at oss kveðinn - great grief is sent to us; allir kváðusk fylgya vilja - all said they were willing to follow (v)
kveðja greeting, salute (f)
kveðja (kvaddi) greet, salute; kveðja (upp) - call up, summon (v)
kveisa boil (f)
kveisu-nagli core of a boil (m)
kveld evening; at kveldi - at nightfall; í kveldi - this evening; um kveldit - the evening before (n)
kvelda (að), kveldar evening draws in (v)
kveldsǫngr evensong, vespers (m)
Kveld-Úlfr Kveld-Ulf (personal name), Night Wolf (m)
kvenna women, wives (f pl)
kvennalið women (n)
kvenn-skikkja woman's cloak (f)
kvennváðir women's clothing (f pl)
kverk the angle below the chin (f)
kveykva, kveikti kindle, light (v)
kví sheepfold (f)
kvía-garðr wall of a sheepfold (m)
kviðlingr ditty, short verse (m)
kviðr belly (m)
kvikindi animals; living being, creature (n)
kvikr alive, living (adj)
kvikvendi living creature (n)
kvilla sickness (f)
kvisa (að) whisper (v)
kvistr twig, branch (m)
kvǫð duty; ák hróðrs of kvǫð - a song of praise is due from me (f)
kykr living, alive, animate (adj)
kykvendi animal, beast, living creature (n); animals, beasts, living creatures (n pl)
kýll bag, knapsack (m)
kyn kin, kindred, origin, kind (n)
kyn-kvísl descendants; lineage (f)
kyn-ligr strange, wondrous (adj)
kynslóð family line, progeny
kýr cow (f)
kyrr quiet; hafa kyrt um sik, sitja um kyrt - remain quiet
kyrtill kirtle, tunic (m)
kyssa (t) kiss (v)
Old Norse --- English --- Top a æ b c d e f g h i j k l m n o œ p r s t u v w y z þ
blood, ruddiness, vital warmth
harm, destruction, misfortune, bane; sviga læ - fire, 'bane of switches'; gráðar læ - food, 'hunger's bane' (n)
lægæ_dōm (‡) medicine (m)
lægð low ground, low place (f)
lægð low place, low ground (f)
lægh (‡) law (f pl)
læging disgrace; humiliation (f)
lægja (ð) lower; (impers.) sink (v)
læknir physician (m)
længæ desire (v)
lær-leggr thigh-bone
læsa lock, shut up (v)
læti bearing, gestures, manner; voice; noise (n pl)
lag stab, thrust; layer, position, stratum, layer; fate (preordained fate); lay, order, disposition; í verra lagi - among the worst (n)
lág log (f)
lagit, lagt placed
lag-maþær (‡) lawman (m)
lágr small, low (adj)
lagsmaðr companion (m)
lama-sess helpless state (m)
lambskinns-kofri hood of lamb-skin (m)
land land; country; estate (n)
landaleitan exploration (f)
landauðn depopulation (f)
landaurar land-dues; a tax paid by Icelanders to the king upon arrival in Norway (m pl)
landi fellow-countryman (m)
land-kostr quality of the land (m)
landnám settlement, lit land-taking (n)
Landnámabók Book of Settlements (f)
landnámamaðr, landnámsmaðr settler, lit land-take-man (the term refers to both women and men) (m)
land-norðr north-east, 'inland north'
land-nyrðingr north-east wind (m)
landráð the government of the land (n)
land-skjálpti earthquake (m)
lands-kostr resources or quality (good) of a country (m)
landskyld land tax, property tax (f)
lands-lǫg law of the land (n pl)
lands-maðr inhabitant or native of a country, countryman (m)
lands-nytjar produce of the land (f pl)
landsréttr the law of the land, customary rights (m)
land-suðr south-east, 'inland south' (n)
langeldar long fires (down the middle of the hall) (m pl)
langfeðgar forefathers, ancestors (through the father's line) (m pl)
langháls long-necked (nickname) (m)
langlífr long-lived (adj)
langniðiar family tree (long line of forefathers or long line of descendants)
langr long (of distance and time) (adj)
langskip warship
langt length (a long way); for a long time (adv)
lasta blame, speak ill of (v)
láta put, place, set; let, allow, permit; concede, yield; leave, leave off; lose; cause to be done, command; behave (as if); declare; sound; have something done; dead, deceased; láta af - take off, leave off, give up, lose; láta á land - put ashore; láta fram - let go, yield, hand over; láta sem - pretend, make or behave as if, pretend that; say, declare; allege that, confess that; lit let on as if, láta upp - open; láta í haf, láta út - put to sea; láta at landi - put in to land; let, allow; skyldi eigi láta verða - (they) should not allow it to happen; láta laust - let go; lét sér ekki feilask - did not falter; concede, yield; láta við - answer (prayer); láta eptir - give way to a pull; leave; leave behind; láta w. infin. cause to be done, have done, command to be done; cause or make one do a thing; látið eigi stórliga yfir uðr - do not behave arrogantly; láta ørvænt - declare it unlikely; létu sér eigi annars ván - said they expected nothing else; láta hátt - make a loud noise; láta látum - make sounds (v)
látinn dead, deceased (adj)
Laufey goddess, known only as the mother of Loki (f)
laufgrœnn leaf-green, verdant (adj)
laufsblað leaf (n)
laug bath; hot spring (f)
lauga (að) bathe (v)
laugar-dagr Saturday, 'bathing day' (m)
laukr leek; (general) plant
laun reward (n pl)
laun secrecy (f); á laun - secretly (adv)
launa reward (v)
laun-dyrr secret door (f pl)
lausafé movable property, as opposed to lands or even to land and cattle (n)
lausang lying, falsehood; falseness (f)
laus-eygr with roving eyes (adv)
lauss free; loose; unimpeded; free of obligation; unsteady; unhindered (by pack horses) (adj)
lausung falseness (f)
lax salmon (m)
Laxárdalr Laxardal (place name), Salmon Valley (m)
ledrhals leather neck
leðr-hosa leather bag (f)
leggja place, lay, put; put down, lay down; move, bring; stab, thrust, throw; make; give; leggja á - come upon; impose; leggja at - attack (in naval battle); leggja eigu á - take possession of; leggja frá - withdraw; leggja fram - come into battle, make an attack (on); leggja fyrir - give to, settle on; provide; make available; give (advice); leggja kapp á - take trouble about, be ardent in; leggja við - risk; leggja sik fram - put forth effort, put or lay down; cast down; leggja segl - lower sail (ship/sailing term); leggja at velli, leggja at jǫrðu - lay low, slay; leggja á við - lay as a spell on one; move, bring; leggja lykkju - tie a knot; leggja skipunum inn á fjǫrð - bring the ships into the fjord (ship/sailing term); leggja í móti - oppose with; leggja saman - bring together; leggja í spánu - smash into pieces; leggja til - attack (by stabbing); thrust at; lay a course to (ship/sailing term); leggja til barðaga - attack; leggja til með - attack with; leggja undir sik - conquer; leggja virðing á - bestow honor on one; lifit á leggja - lay down one's life; leggjask - lay, set oneself; leggjask á - prey upon (of robbers, beasts of prey, etc.); fall upon, attack; leggjask í - appear in, enter; leggjask niðr - lie down; leggjask út - set out (into the wilderness to live as an outlaw); leyjask yfir - swim across; lagthæs mæth (‡) - lay with; hingat leggr reykinn - the smoke is blown in this direction; (v)
leggr bone (hollow bone of arms and legs); leg; leggr ok liðr - every limb (m)
leið road, path; way, journey; manner, fashion (f)
leiða (dd) lead; make tired of; become tired of (v)
leiðangr ship; naval forces
Leiði Leid, a giant killed by Thor (m)
leiðitamr genial; easily led, compliant (adj)
leiðr hateful (adj)
leifa (ð) leave, leave as heritage, leave after death; leave behind, abandon, relinquish; leifðu at sik - left in themselves, lost in death (v)
leiga (ð) hire, rent (v)
leika play, sport; move to and fro; be current; leika sér - play; leika við - play against (v)
leikr game, sport, contest, play; Hildar leikr - battle; hvat leika er - what is going on (m)
leira mud-flat (f)
leir-stokkinn mud-spattered (adj)
leita (að) seek, search for; find; see; try to go, go; attack; proceed on a journey; leita á - attack, assault; find fault with, sneer at; leita sér lífs - seek to save one's life; leita ráða til - ask for advice from; leita at - make inquiry; leita til - look for; try, attempt; leita eptir við - ask for a thing from a person; seek out; find; try to go, go; leita út - get outside; leita við - try; leitask fyrir - make a search before one (v)
leka drip, dribble, leak (v)
lēkare (‡), lækari (‡) minstrel, buffoon, fool (m)
lemja maim; break; strike; smite; beat; lemja í sundr - break (v)
lendr landed; describes one who has received a grant of land from a king; lendr maðr - landholder, nobleman (adj)
lengð length (f)
lengi long; far; a long time; for a long time; lengr - longer; lengst - longest; sem lengst - as long (or far) as he could (adv)
lengja (ð) lengthen, prolong (v)
lengr longer (time), for a longer time (adv)
lengra longer (distance); farther (adv)
lengst longest, for the longest time (adv)
lēnu (‡), lēonu (‡) lion
leppr lock of hair (m)
lérept clothes; linen (n)
lesa read, gather; express, concoct (v)
lesta (t) injure (v)
letja (latti) hinder, dissuade (v)
létta stop, cease; lift; léttir - a thing ceases or abates; áðr létti - before the end (v)
leyðra wash (v)
leyfa permit, allow; praise (v)
leyfi permission, leave (n)
leyna (d) hide, conceal; leynask - hide oneself, be concealed; leynask í brott, leynask í burt - steal away, leave (v)
leysa loosen, untie; depart; purchase; redeem; purchase; tear; conceal a thing; send (from one's house); leysa í brott - find places for; leysa flotann - weigh anchor (ship/sailing term); leysask undan við - draw back from (v)
lið people; band of men, host; troops; following; herd; help, aid; koma (or verða) at liði - come to one's aid, be of help to (n)
líða move, go; pass (usually of time), progress; dead; liða at - draw toward (of time); liða fram - pass away; leið á vetrinn (or várit) - the winter (spring) was far spent; drew to a close; sem leið at jólum - as it drew near to Yule, as time passed toward Yule (v)
liði follower (m)
liðr joint; leggr ok liðr - every limb (m)
lið-sinni help (n)
lið-veizla help; support (f)
líf life; lífs - alive; á lífi - alive; lífit á leggja - lay down one's life (n)
lifa (ð) live (v)
lífdagar life (m pl)
líflát death, loss of life (n)
liflátinn dead (adj)
lífs alive (adj)
lift allowable to live (adj)
līfwerne (‡) conduct of life (n)
liggja lie (down); lie ill; be situated; be in a certain place; lie low, be slain; lodge, sleep; lie at anchor (ship/sailing term); lead, go (of road); sú's mest of lá - which flowed mightily on; liggja eptir - remain behind; liggja í - let sink in; liggja til - be fitting; be due to; belong to; liggja um - lie coiled around; liggja við - be at stake; depend on; ligr við - one is on the verge of (v)
lík, lik corpse, body (n)
líka (að) please, be pleasing; láta sér líka - allow oneself to be satisfied (v)
líkami body (m)
líki equal; like (m)
líki shape, form; body (n)
líkindi trace; likelihood (n pl)
líkligr likely, probable (adj)
líknsamr merciful (adj)
líknstafr statement (favorable statement), esteem, warm regard
líkr, glíkr like, resembling; probable; promising; likely; similar to; corresponding to, in accordance with (adj)
lík-sproti spar for bracing sail
limar limbs, branches (f pl)
lími branch; bow; besom (broom) (m)
lín flax; linen, linen garment; bride's veil (n)
lína bowline, rope; line; bridal veil; linen headdress (f)
Línakradalr Linakradale (place name), Valley of Linen Fields (m)
lind lime-tree; shield (f)
linr kindly (adv)
liónar people (pl.)
list art (f)
líta look; see; seem; regard; take into consideration; líta á - look at; líta til - turn to, acknowledge greeting; líta yfir - gaze upon; seem, appear; lítask - appear (seem) to; lítask á - be pleased with, like (v)
litask (að) litask um - look about (v)
lítill little, short; lítill fyrir sér - weak, of no account; lítla hrið - for a little while; lítlu - a little; lítlu siðar(r) - a little later (adj)
lítillátliga humbly (adv)
litilmenni mean fellow; one of little manhood (n)
lítilræði trifle (n)
lítit little (adv)
litklæði colored (dyed) clothes
litlauss colorless, pale (adj)
litr looks, appearance; color(ing); complexion (m)
Litr Lit (personal name), Wise
lítt little; lítt til - little of; (adv)
ljá (léði) lend; give (v)
ljóma (að) shine (v)
ljómi radiance (m)
ljós light, lantern; burning light (n)
Ljósálfar Light Elves (m pl)
ljós-jarpr light chestnut (adj)
ljóss clear; light, bright; light colored; fair; it ljóstasta - most clearly (adj)
ljósta strike; ljósta í hel - strike dead (v)
ljótr ugly (n)
ljúga lie, tell a lie; fail; false (v)
lǫð invitation; hospitality (f)
loðbrók shaggy-breeches (nickname) (f)
lodinkinni shaggy hair
loðinn hairy, furry (adj)
Lóðurr Lothur (personal name)
lœkr brook, stream (m)
lof praise (n)
lofa (að) praise; allow, permit (f)
Lofarr Lofar (personal name)
lofðungr prince, king (m)
lófi palm of the hand; holr lófi - open palm (m)
lof-kvæði poem of praise; encomium (n)
lofs-orð word of praise (n)
lög, lǫg law, laws; constitution
lóga part with (v)
loga (að) blaze (v)
lögberg, lǫgberg law-rock (where the law was recited) (n)
logi flame, fire; brenna loga - burn strongly, be ablaze (m)
log-kœnn law capable (skilled in the law)
lǫgkœnn skilled in the law
lögligr legal, lawful (adj)
lögmaðr lawman (m)
lǫgmál legal procedure (m)
logn calm (n)
logr sea, water
lögretta legislature at the Althing (f)
lögsögumaðr, lǫgsǫgumaðr law-speaker of the assembly
lǫgvǫrn defense at law (f)
lokhvila locking bed-closet (f)
Loki Loki, the trickster god (m)
lok-rekkja locking bed-closet (f)
lǫn row; hræs lanar - the rows of the slain (f)
löngu long, far-off, constantly (adv)
lǫngubak fishbelly
löngum constantly, a long time (adv)
Lóni Loni, Sea-pool
lopt sky, air; heavens; aloft; upper room; í lopt - into the heavens; á lopt(i) - up; in(to) the air, aloft; taka spjót á lopti - catch a spear as it flies (n)
losna (að) become loose; be broken; be torn up (v)
lostigr willing (adj)
lúðr (rs) trumpet (m)
lúfa shaggy-hair (f)
lufa (aþ) (‡) allow (v)
lúka close; finish, end; use up; shut; lúka aptr - close; lúka fyrir sér, lúka upp - open; skal yfir lúka með oss - our dealings shall now be ended; áðr lúki - before the case is ended; lauk - it has been ended (v)
lund manner; mind, temper; mood; nature; character; way; á þess lund - in this manner (f)
lundr grove (m)
lunga lung (m)
lús louse (f)
luste (‡), loste (‡) desire (m)
lúta bend down, bow; pay reverence to; lúta í - bend to; lúta ór horni - raise the head from the horn; lúta til - show deference to (v)
Lútr Lutr, a giant killed by Thor (m)
lýðr people (m); men (m pl)
lygi lie, falsehood (f)
lygi-saga fictitious tale (f)
lykð end; at lykðum - at last (f)
lykill key (m)
lykkja knot; loop (f)
lyndis-bragð temper (n)
lypta (t) lift (v)
lypting stern (high decked part of stern); poop-deck (f) (ship/sailing term)
lysa dawn; illuminate; proclaim (v)
lysta desire; wish (v)
Old Norse --- English --- Top a æ b c d e f g h i j k l m n o œ p r s t u v w y z þ
má (ð) rub, shape by rubbing (v)
maðr, man, maþær man; person; human being; husband; henchman (m)
mækir sword; mækis á - stream of swords, advance of those carrying swords or blood (m)
mæla (t) speak; mæla eptir - take up the prosecution for the slaying of _____ ; mæla í gregn - oppose; mæla í lǫgum - declare as law; mæla til - express a wish for, ask for; mæla við - speak to or with; mælask undan - beg to be spared (v)
mær maiden, maid, girl, virgin (f)
mæra (ð) praise (v)
mærð praise; encomium (f)
mærr famous, noble, glorious (adj)
magi stomach
mágr brother-in-law; relative by marriage; father-in-law; son-in-law (m)
magr (ran) thin (adj)
mainsamr harmful
má-k-at I cannot
makligr fitting, proper, becoming; deserving (adj)
makligr fitting, deserved (adj)
makt (‡) power, force (f)
mál case; cause;
mál speech, talk; tale, story; information; language; dialect; discussion; conversation; proposition; season, period of time; measure; time, meal-time; case; cause (n)
mala grind (v)
mála-ferli lawsuits (n pl)
mála-flutningr pleading of lawsuits (m)
mála-lykðir conclusion of suits (f pl)
malm-hrið battle, 'storm of metal' (f)
málmr, malmr metal (m)
malm-þing battle, 'meeting of weapons' (n)
mál-nyta dairy cattle; milk cows, milch cows (f)
mál-stefna conference (f)
man thralls, house-folk (n)
mánaðr, mánuðr month (m)
man-dōm (‡) homage (m)
mang (‡), mangher (‡) many (adj)
máni moon (m)
manlíkan human likeness or form, being in human shape
mannaðr educated (well educated), accomplished (adj)
manna-forráð authority (n)
manna-mót meeting (n)
manna-vegr road, way where men pass (m)
manna-vist habitation (human) (f)
mann-blót human sacrifice (n)
mann-boð feast (n)
mann-broddr spike (m)
mann-dráp murder; manslaughter (n)
mann-fall slaughter; loss of life (n)
mann-fólk mankind; people (n)
manngi no one, nobody; no man (pron)
mann-liga valiantly, in manly wise (adv)
mann-ligr human
manns-hönd hand (a man's hand) (f)
mann-skaði manslaughter (m)
mann-vænn promising (adj)
mann-virðing honor, credit (f)
mannvit intelligence; human intelligence, common sense (n)
Már Mar (personal name), Corpse
már, mór gull, seagull; mew (m)
margbreytinn fickle, capricious, unpredictable (adj)
margkunnigr learned (in magic) (adj)
marglóð gold (f)
margmenni multitude, many (n)
marg-mennr with many men
margr many (adj); many a (with sing); many (with pl)
marg-spakr wise (very wise), wise in many ways
mark token, sign; lítit mark at - of little account (m)
marka mark, draw; fix; mark as one's property; mark with an emblem; heed, mind; signify, mean; infer; þar eptir mátt þú marka fergrð hans - accordingly, you can judge his beauty (v)
marr horse, steed; sea (m)
martirium martyrdom (n)
mástallr sea, 'stall of the seagull' (m)
matar-illr food stingy; niggardly with food (adj)
matask (að) dine (eat a meal)
mat-borð table laid with food (n)
mat-búa cook, to prepare food (v)
mat-fǫng supply of food (m pl)
mat-naðr pride
matr food; meal (m)
mat-sveinn cook (m)
máttr might; ability (m)
máttugr mighty (adj)
maurr ant; maurr haugr - ant-hill (m)
með with; with (in the sense of bringing, carrying or forcing); bringing, carrying; with (in the sense of accompanying or togetherness); along with; using; by means of; among; along; peace (in peace); þar meðr - as well, also; vera með - stay with; vera ilt með - it goes ill with one; með því at - inasmuch as, because; sigla með landi - sail along the coast (prep)
með as well, with it; (adv)
meðal, á meðal, í meðal among, between; okkar í meðal - between us (our deaths) (prep)
meðal-maðr average man; meðal á vǫxt - middle-sized man (m)
meðal-snotr (ran) clever, moderately or middling wise (adj)
meðan while, as long as, whilst; in the meantime (adv)
meðan in the meantime; (á) meðan - while, when (conj)
mega can, may; be able to; má mér at - that may happen to me; vera má - it is possible; mega við - be able to withstand (v)
megin strength; might, power, ability; supernatural strength; side(s) (n)
megin-gjarðar Thor’s girdle of strength
megin-grimmr terrible (adj)
megin-kátliga most joyfully (adv)
megin-land mainland (n)
meiða maim (v)
meiða (dd) injure, hurt, damage; maim; meiðask - become injured, hurt, damaged (v)
meiðmar treasures (f pl)
meiðr pole, tree-trunk
mein injury, pain, harm, hurt; disease, plague; koma at meini -do harm to (n)
meinfretr stinkfart
mein-gefit one is maliciously inclined
meinlauss sinless (adj)
mein-samr violent, harmful (adj)
meir(r) more, more greatly (adv)
meiri more, bigger (adj)
meizl injury, mutilation (n)
mella noose; [poetic] giantess (f)
mel-rakki white (arctic) fox (m)
mel-torfa turf knoll in the middle of barren ground (f)
men treasure, necklace, jewel (n); jewels, treasures (n pl)
men (‡) but (conj)
mengi multitude, host (n)
menn-skurð (‡) lady, wearer of necklace (f)
mennt accomplishment, art; hafa hluti til menntar - have good parts, possess talents (f)
menntr well-bred, accomplished (adj)
menskr human
mér, mir me (to me)
mergr marrow (m)
merki boundary; banner, standard; token, mark, sign; sample; mikit merkjum - extensive, of wide expanse (n)
merkis-stǫng standard-pole(f)
merr mare (f)
mersing brass (f)
mersin-spónn, mersingar-spón spoon (brass spoon) (m)
messa feast-day, mass
mest mostly (adv)
mest-háttar of the greatest importance
mestr most, greatest (adj)
meta evaluate, estimate, value; set a price (v)
metnaðar-gjarn ambitious; eager for fame
metnaðr glory
met-orð esteem (n)
mettr having finished a meal
meydómr maidenhood, virginity (m)
meyla girl (little girl)
Miðfjarðr-Skeggi Skeggi of Midfjord (personal name) (m)
Miðfjörðr Midfjord (place name) (m)
Miðgarðr Midgard, Middle-Enclosure, Middle Earth; the world of men (m)
Miðgarðsormr Midgard Serpent, the serpent Jörmungandr that encircles the earth (m)
miðla share, hand out; distribute; mediate; make a compromise; miðla mál - make a compromise; miðla við - share with (v)
miðli, milli, millum in; á miðli - between, among (adv)
miðnótt midnight, also a roughly three-hour portion of the day beginning at midnight (f)
miðr middle, the middle of (adj)
miðr-aptan middle evening, a roughly three hour portion of the day beginning about 6:00 p.m. (m)
mið-sumar midsummer (n)
mikill big, tall, great, large; much, very; severe; mikill fyrir sér - powerful, strong; þykkja mikill - affect one greatly; miklu - much, by far (adj)
mikil-læti pride, presumption (n)
mikil-látr proud (adj)
mikil-úðligr imposing, of distinguished appearance (adj)
mikinn hard, fast (adv)
mikit greatly (adv)
mikla (að) gain fame, (mid.) acquire fame; make great (v)
Miklagarðr, Mikligarðr Constantinople, Miklagard, 'mighty stronghold' (m)
miklimunnr big, loud mouth
miklu much (adv)
mildr generous, merciful (adj)
milli in; between (prep)
Mimir mimir, one of the Æsir (m)
Mimisbrunnr Mimisbrunn, the Well of Mimir (m)
mindri smaller (adj)
minka lessen, be diminished (v)
minn my, mine, of me (pron)
minna remind; minnir mik - I remember; minnask - remember, call to mind (v)
minni less (adj)
minni toast (usually in honor of the dead), memorial cup (n)
minstr least (adj)
Minþakseyrr Minthak's Shoal
Miǫðvitnir Mjothvitnir, Mead-wolf
miǫtviðr Measure-tree: well-proportioned tree; tree which measures extent or limits of the world, tree which metes out fate
misjafnt unequally; hyggja misjafnt til - have doubts about
miski offense; gera til miska - offend, harm (m)
miskunn mercy, grace (f)
miskunn-samr merciful (adj)
miskviða-laust without flaw in procedure
mislíka displease (v)
missa (t) be without; lose (v)
missegja relate incorrectly
misseri season (of about six months) (n)
mistæ (t) (‡) lose (v)
mis-yrki avenger (m)
miþal (‡) middle
miþal-þriðiungr (‡) county between two others (m)
mjöðr mead; óðins mjoðr- poetry, 'Odin's milk' (m)
mjök, mjǫk much; very (adv)
mjöl, mjǫl meal, flour; Fróða mjǫl - gold (n)
mjǫl-beigr meal-bag (n)
mjolbelgr meal-bag (m)
mjólka (að) milk (v)
mjölleyfi license to export meal (n)
Mjöllnir Mjollnir, hammer of Thor (m)
mjǫl-sáld measure of meal (n)
mjonefr stingy, thin nose
mjǫt measure (the right measure) (f)
mjǫtuðr dispenser of fate (m)
mødherne (‡) mother’s side (of descent) (f)
móðir mother (f)
móðr fury, wrath; weary, tired (m)
mœði exhaustion, weariness (f)
Mœrr Mœrr, region in West Norway (f)
mœta (tt) meet; deal with; join; sem landit mœttisk ok flóðit gekk efst - where the land and high tide meet (v)
mögfellandi kin-slaying (one) (m)
mögr, mǫgr boy, young man; man; son; (m); kindred (m pl)
mǫl, möl pebbles, gravel; haukstrandar mǫl - gold rings
mold soil; dirt, mold, earth (as substance) (f)
moli piece; bits, fragments (m)
mön, mǫn mane (f)
Mǫrðr Morth (personal name)
mórðvíg murder (n)
morgin(n), morgun(n) morning; following day; á morginn - tomorrow (m)
mǫrk forest; mark (of silver unless gold is specified) (f)
morna (að) waste away (v)
mosi moss, moorland (m)
mǫsurr maple (m)
mót manner, towards, meeting; þar í móti - opposing him; í móti ar fara út - against going out (n)
mótgørð offense; annoyance (f)
móti, mōte (‡) against; towards (of time); contrary; meet, escort (prep)
móti, mōte (‡) in exchange, meet (them) (adv)
Mótsognir Motsognir, "battle roarer", father of the Dwarfs who resides in Nidavellir
móttaka resistance, defense, counter-attack; til móttöku - to a defense, to counter-attack (f)
mǫtu-neyti community of food; leggya mǫtuneyti sitt - make a common store of provisions (n)
muðr mouth (m)
múgr crowd (m)
múli ridge (projecting ridge between two valleys) (m)
muna remember, call to mind; muna langt fram - remember from a long time back (v)
mun-a, mun-at will not
Munarvágr Munarvag (personal name)
mund hand (f)
mundr bride-price (m)
mun-gát drink; ale (n)
mun-knǫrr mind, 'ship of the mind' (m)
munkr monk (m)
munnr mouth (m)
munr heart, mind; difference; fyrir engan mun - for no consideration (m)
mun-strǫnd heart, breast, 'shore of the mind' (f)
mun-tún mind-enclosure'; muntún hugar - breast (n)
munu will, shall; to be sure to; be about to; will be; would, must (probability); might (v)
munuð love (physical)
murtr fish (a small fish)
mús mouse (f)
Múspellsheimr Muspellsheim, the Land of Fire (m)
myki-skán cake of dung (f)
mýkjask (t) be softened (v)
mylla mill (f)
mynd form; shape (f)
myrk-fælinn afraid of the dark
myrkr (van) dark; darkness (adj)
myrkva (t) grow dark (v)
myrr, mýrr moor, bog, swamp; más mýrr - sea, 'mew's moor' (f)
Old Norse --- English --- Top a æ b c d e f g h i j k l m n o œ p r s t u v w y z þ
ná (ð) get, obtain, reach, catch, overtake; be able to; ná at - be able to, be allowed to (v)
nábúi neighbor (m)
nādhir (‡) peace, quiet, grace (f pl)
naðr (rs) serpent (m)
næmd (‡) committee, council (f)
næmnæe greet (give formal welcome to), give one’s name
nær near, nearer, nearly, close to, close by, closely; when; næst - nearer, next; því næst - thereupon, next; þessu næst - after this; þat er nú þessu næst at - the next event to be told is that (adv)
næsta nearly; því var næsta - very nearly so (adv)
næstr next; it næsta sumar áðr - the summer before; it næsta sumar eptir - the following summer (adj)
næstum last time (adv)
nætr-elding dawn (f)
nafn name (n)
nafnfrægr famous (adj)
nagl nail (m)
nágrindr gates of the dead (f pl)
naínn near; nearly related (adj)
nakkvarr, nǫkkurr a, a certain; any (adj)
nál needle (f)
ná-lægr near, close; mun nálægt verða - it will be a near thing (adj)
nálgask approach; come up to (v)
Náli Nali (personal name)
ná-liga nearly, almost; nearby (adv)
namn (‡) name (n)
nánd proximity; í nánd - near; í nánd við - close to (f)
nár corpse, dead man (m)
nári groin (m)
ná-sær blood, 'sea of the body' (m)
ná-skyldr nearly related
nāthæ (‡) peace (f)
nátt night, the nighttime part of the day
nátta become night; grow dark (v)
nátt-ból quarters for the night (n)
nátt-langt whole night long (adv)
nátt-mál nightfall, a roughly three hour portion of the day beginning about 9 p.m.
nátt-staðr lodging for the night (n)
náttúra natural ability; nature, characteristic quality, property (f); spirits (f pl)
nátt-verðr supper; náttverðr ara - the slain, 'the eagle's-supper' (m)
nátt-vig killing by night (n)
nātūr-līker (‡) natural (adj)
nauð(r) difficulty, need, distress; harm; poverty; ætla til nauð - intend as harm to (f)
nauðgjald forced payment (n)
nauðigr, nauðugr unwilling, against one's will
nauð-syn need, necessity (f)
nauðugr unwilling, reluctant (adj)
náungi kinsman (m)
naut cattle, oxen (n)
ná-vimr blood, 'stream of the body' (m)
not; nor; hvárki…né - neither…nor; né…né - not…nor (conj)
neðan from below, from beneath; without motion - beneath, underneath (adv)
neðar lower (adj)
neðri lower (adj)
nef nose (n)
nef-bjorg nose-piece (of armor), helmet nasal (f)
nef-fǫlr yellow-beaked (adj)
nefna (d), næmnæ (‡) name, call; mention; , næmnæ í gēn (‡) - give formal welcome to, give one's name (v)
nef-steði anvil with a sharp point (m)
nei no (adv)
neinn no, none; in negative sentence - any (adj)
neiss shamed (n)
neita (tt) refuse, deny (v)
nema take; take possession of; catch, strike against; amount to; claim land; hear; learn; deprive one of a thing; nema af - abolish; nema frá - except, exempt; nema land - take possession of land as a settler; neima stað (or staðar) - halt (v)
nema unless; except, save, but; unless (conj)
nenna be minded, be willing (v)
neppr dying; slight, faint
nes headland, ness (n)
nest provisions, traveling provisions (n)
nest-baggi bag for provisions
nezla button-hole or loop (f)
nið insult; hostility, contumely (n)
nið moon (waning moon)
níða slander (v)
nidher-slā (‡) strike down, fell (v)
Niðhöggr, Níðhǫggr Nidhogg, (Malice Striker), the dragon/serpent the serpent which dwells in the spring Hvergelmir and gnaws at a root of the world tree, Yggdrasill (m)
Niði Nithi (personal name), Waned-moon
niðings-verk shameful deed(s) (n)
niðr down (adv)
niðr son, kinsman, scion, kinsman through marriage (m)
niðri down; below (adv)
nið-stǫng stake of scorn (on which was placed a mutilated mare's head, as part of a curse) (f)
Niflheimr Niflheim, the Underworld (m)
Niflhel Niflhel, Dark Hel, place for some dead (f)
nío nine (num)
nipt sister; nipt Nara - Hel (f)
niþ (‡) waning of the moon (f)
nitján nineteen (num); nitjándi - nineteenth (ord num)
níu nine (num); níundi - ninth (ord num)
Njörðr Njord, god of the sea, one of the Vanir (m)
njósn news; spying, scouting, looking out (f)
njóta enjoy; have the use of; derive benefit from; njótum vér - let us make the most of it; njóta við - have help from (v)
nlgask appoint (v)
nøghia (‡) satisfy; láta nøghia sik at - content oneself with (v)
nógr enough, abundant (adj)
nógu sufficiently (adv)
Nói Noah (personal name)
nǫkkut, nǫkkuru somewhat, in any way (adv)
nøkkviðr, nøktan naked, ill-clad; setja nøkðan - erase (adj)
norðan-lands in the north country
norðan-veðr wind from the north (n)
norðan-verðr northern; í norðan-verðum dalnum - in the northern part of the valley (adj)
Norðmaðr Norwegian
norðr northwards (adv)
norðr-ætt north (the north) (f)
Norðri North
Norðymbraland Northumbria (place name)
Nóri Nori (personal name)
Norrœna Norse tongue (f)
Norrœnn Norwegian
norþæn from the north
norþastr farthest north (adj)
Norvegr north way; Norway
nǫs nostril (f)
nótt night; í nótt - tonight (f)
now (adv)
new moon (n)
Nýi Nyi (personal name), New-moon
ný-kominn newly arrived (adj)
ný-lunda news; strange thing (f)
ný-næmi something new (n)
nyr, nýr new (f)
nýra kidney (n)
Nýráðr Nyrath (personal name), New-counsel
ný-rekinn newly driven (adj)
nýsa (t) search, peer, investigate (v)
ný-smurþær (‡) freshly greased (adj)
nýta (tt) use; eat; avail; derive benefit from; profit; svát nýtir - as will serve, well enough (v)
nýtr useful; engu nýtt - of no use (adj)
ný-vaknaðr just awakened (adj)
Old Norse --- English --- Top a æ b c d e f g h i j k l m n o œ p r s t u v w y z þ
ó-áran season (bad season); dearth (n)
ó-birgr unprovided (adj)
ó-brigðr reliable, unfailing (adj)
ó-bygð wilderness
ó-dæll difficult, quarrelsome, stubborn, troublesome to deal (with); overbearing; þykkja ódælt við - think one difficult to deal with (adj)
odd-breki blood, 'point wave' (m)
oddr point (m)
óðfúss eager, madly keen (adj)
Óðinn Odin, Othin, chief god of the Æsir (m)
ǫðlask, öðlask earn, win (v)
ó-dœmi unexampled thing (n pl)
ódr frantic; furious; vehement; enraged; wood, raving, frenzied, raging, mad with fear (adj)
óðr mental faculties, voice
Óðr Od, the name of Freyja's husband or lover
ó-drengskapr meanness (m)
ó-drukkinn not drunk (adj)
Old Norse --- English --- Top a æ b c d e f g h i j k l m n o œ p r s t u v w y z þ
œðask (dd) become frantic (v)
œðri higher (in dignity) (adj)
œgis-hjálmr terrorize; intimidate; 'helm of terror'; bera œgishjálm yfir - intimidate, terrorize (m)
óeirðarmaðr unruly man (m)
œpa (t) scream, shout; cry, cry out (v)
œrinn sufficient, enough (adj)
œrit enough; sufficiently, overly, very (adv)
œrr mad, frantic (adj)
œska youth (f)
œxla cause increas, multiply (v)
œztr highest, noblest (adj)
of pride (n)
of over; for; across, through; around, about; concerning, as regards; because of; of veg - on his way; (prep)
of too (adv)
of drykkja drinking (excessive drinking), over-drinking
of síðir at last
ófærr impassable
ófagnaðr injustice
ófagnaðr-kraptr power for evil (m)
ofan from above, down; downwards; on the uppermost part, at the top of; above the surface of (adv)
ofan down, from above; southwards; ofan á, ofan til - ofan um knappinn - around the staff just below the knob; saar owan ā saar (‡) - wound upon wound; þar á ofan - in addition (adv);
ofan down to, over, above, on; ofan á, ofan til - down (from above) to; fyrir ofan - over, above; ufan - on, above (prep)
ofar-liga high up (adv)
of-haarth (‡) excessively severe (adj)
ó-fjǫllóttr flat, not mountainous (adj)
of-længi (‡) too long
oflati dandy, gaudy person
ǫflugr strong, powerful
ofn oven (m)
ó-fœra peril; dangerous situation (f)
ó-fœrr impassable, unable to move (adj)
ófǫlr (van) dark; without light-colored defective spots (of furs) (adj)
ó-forvitinn having no curiosity
ó-frær barren, unproductive (adj)
óframliga timidly (adv)
ofreflis-maðr superior (one's superior in power) (m)
ofr-hiti heat (excessive heat) (m)
ó-friðr war, hostility; strife (m)
of-ríki tyranny; overbearing (n)
øf-rīkt (‡) wealth (too great wealth) (f)
ofr-lið force (ovewhelming force) (n)
ofrǫlvi drunk (excessively drunk)
ofsa exaggerate; ofsa sér til vansa - puff oneself up to one's own undoing (v)
ofsi pride (m)
ofstopi arrogant man (m)
ǫfugr backwards, turned the wrong way
öfundarorð slander, words of envy (n pl)
ófúss unwilling (adj)
ó-fȳdr (‡) unborn (while yet unborn)
ógæfa misfortune
ógagn harm, hurt
ógagn-vænligr useless; unprofitable; good for nothing (adj)
óglaðr depressed, glum (adj)
ógleði sadness, depression (f)
ógǫrr undone
ógurligr awful, terrible (adj)
óhægindi discomfort (n)
ó-happ misfortune (n)
ó-hermannliga in unsoldierly fashion (adv)
ó-hœgr difficult (adj)
óhóf pride, lack of moderation (n)
óhræddr unafraid, without fear (adj)
óhreinn impure (adj)
ójafnaðar-maðr unjust, overbearing man (m)
ójafnaðr injustice, unfairness (m)
ok and (conj); also (adv) but, though; ok þá - then; ok þó - although
øk (‡) work-horses, team of work-horses (n pl)
ó-kátr gloomy, depressed (adj)
økilse (‡) increase (f)
okkarr our, of us two (adj)
ókræsi-legr dirty, filthy (adj)
ókunnigr unknown (adj)
ókviðinn undismayed (adj)
ǫl, öl beer; ale (n)
Óláfr Olaf (personal name); Ólafr pái - Olaf the Peacock (nickname)
ǫld, öld age; time; [poetic] man (f); mankind, humanity, world; human beings, men (f pl)
ǫlðr ale; ale-party
ǫldungr hero (m)
Ǫlfossá turbulent river, Ale-Force (foaming waterfall) River
ǫlfuss drunkard
ólíkligr unlikely (adv)
ólíkr unlike, unlike to, different from (adj)
óljúg-fróðr well-informed in good traditions
ǫl-ker ale-cask (n)
ólög lawlessness (n)
ǫlr drunk (on ale)
ǫl-teitr merry with ale; in good spirits
ómakligr undeserving (adj)
ō-manlīcer (‡) inhuman (adj)
ó-megð dependent person needing assistance (i.e., children and old people) (f)
ómegin faintness (n)
óminni forgetfulness, non-memory, oblivion
ǫnd, önd life; breath; spirit, soul (f)
ǫndóttr fiery, terrible (adj)
ǫndur-dis skiing goddess, goddess of the skis (f)
ǫndur-god deity with skis (n)
öndvegissúlur posts (High seat posts); pillars
ǫnd-verðr in the beginning of (adj)
Ǫnundarsonr Onundarson (personal name)
ó-nýtr useless; ónýtt efni - evil plight; til ónýtts - so that it was useless (adj)
ó-œpandi without crying out (adv)
opinn open; on one's back (adj)
opna (að) open (cut open) (v)
opnask (að) be opened (v)
opt often, frequently; as often as possible, always; optar(r) - oftener, again (adv)
opta (‡) often (adv)
optar again; oftener (adv)
ór out of, from; of; from inside of; made of; using (as material); with the material of; vera ór - be made of; þar ór - out of it (prep)
ǫr, ör arrow (f)
óráð evil plan (n)
ó-ráðinn undecided, unsettled (adj)
ō-rætter (‡) unjust, unrighteous (adj)
orð word; speech; conversation; message; repute, fame, report; í öðru orði - at the same time, likewise, lit in a second word; gøra orð á - make a tale of; varð þeim ekki at orði - they had nothing to say (n)
orð-sending message (f)
orðs-kviðr proverb (m)
orðs-tírr fame, renown (m)
orð-tœki phrase, expression (n)
ørendi, ørindi mission, errand; message; the result of one's mission
ørendislauss without effect, purposeless, lit errand-less (adj)
ørendislaust without purpose, in vain, for nothing; fara ørendislaust - go in vain, without a purpose or reason (adv)
óreyndr untried; at ǫllu óreyndu - without looking into the matter at all (adj)
ør-grandr honest; fair-minded (adj)
órikr weak (adj)
ør-indi breath (n)
ǫrk ark
orka strength, might (f)
orka work, do, perform (v)
Orkneyjar Orkney Islands (place name) (f pl)
ór-lausn help in difficulty; góðr ó-a - ready to help (f)
orlof permission (n)
ørlǫg, örlög destiny, fate; war (n pl)
ørlǫglauss fateless (i.e. on whom fate has not yet been imposed) (adj)
ormr snake, serpent, worm; eitr ormr - poisonous serpent (m)
Ormr Orm (personal name); Ormr inn auðgi - Orm the Wealthy (m)
ormr-í-auga Snake-in-the-Eye (nickname) (n)
ormslíki shape, form of a dragon (n)
ormstunga serpent tongue
ǫrn eagle (m)
ør-œfi coast without a harbor (open, harborless coast) (n)
órœkja (kt) neglect, fail to heed (v)
órr our
ǫrr (van) swift, bold, keen; liberal, open-handed (adj)
orrosta battle; til orrostu - to or for battle; (f)
orrostumaðr warrior, man of battle (m)
ǫrskots-helgr sanctuary within arrow-shot of a home; í ǫrskots-helgi - within arrow-shot (f)
ør-uggr safe, secure, trusty (adj)
ør-vænn unlikely (adj)
órval dregs; what is left (n)
ǫrvendr left-handed (adj)
ør-viti mad, out of one's senses (adj)
ó-sæbrattr having low lying shores, not steep by the sea (adj)
ó-sælligr wretched, ill-favored (adj)
ó-sæmd dishonor
ó-sætt disagreement (f)
ó-sætti disturbance of the peace (n)
ó-sakaðr unhurt (adj)
ó-sárari less sore, less painful (adj)
ó-sárr unhurt (adj)
ó-sāter (‡) hostile, unreconciled (adj)
ósjaldan repeatedly, not seldom (adv)
ó-sjálfraðr beyond one's control
oskilgetinn born out of wedlock
óskírðr unbaptized (adj)
óskorinn uncut, unshorn (adj)
óskyggn-leiki dim-sightedness (m)
óskylt duty (negated), not one’s duty (n adj)
ósnjallr unwise, foolish (adj)
ósœmd dishonor (f)
ósómi dishonor, ignominy (m)
óss estuary (m)
óst throat (f)
óst (‡) cheese (m)
ósterkligr weak (adj)
øster-rīke (‡) Russia or Wendland, 'the eastern kingdom' (n)
ótambær (‡), ótam (f) (‡) untamed, wild (adj)
óþokku-ligr dirty, nasty (adj)
óþýðr unfriendly, intimidating (adj)
otr otter (m)
otrbelgr otter pelt or skin (m)
otrgjöld wergeld, ransom or compensation for a dead otter, Otter's ransom (n pl)
ótrúligr unbelievable (adj)
ótta the last part of the night before dawn, about 3 a.m. (f)
ótta-lauss without fear
óttask be afraid (v)
ótti fear, dread (f)
ǫuðr (‡) treasure (m)
óvægr harsh, unmerciful (adj)
ó-vænligr unlikely (adj)
óvættr monster (m)
óvand-leikit reasonable; easy to deal with; er óvandleikit við hann - it is easy to deal with him (adj)
óvandr unwary (adj)
ó-varliga incautiously (adv)
óvarr unaware; unwary; koma á óvart - take by surprise (adj)
óvendiliga carelessly (adv)
ó-verk deed (wicked deed) (n)
óvinr enemy (m)
óvirðing disgrace (f)
óvíss uncertain (adj)
óvistuligr desolate (adj)
óvitande not knowing; hänom óvitande - without his knowledge
óvitr ignorant, uninformed (adj)
óvitrliga foolishly (adv)
óvitrligr unwise, rash (adj)
øx axe (f)
öxl shoulder (f)
oy (‡) island (f)
Old Norse --- English --- Top a æ b c d e f g h i j k l m n o œ p r s t u v w y z þ
pái (also pá) peacock (nickname) (m)
pallr step; raised platform along the side(s) of a hall (m)
papi monk (Irish monk), pope, priest; Culdee, name for the Irish anchorites said to be in Iceland when the first Norse settlers arrived. (m)
páskar, páskir Easter (f pl)
pāue (‡) pope (m)
penning penny
penningr coin, money; penny; 1/10 eyrir; piece of property, article; penningar miklir - a good sum of money (m)
pína mortify (v)
prēdica (adh) (‡) preach (v)
prestr priest (m)
prīm-tīmæ (‡) prime time, 9 a.m. (m)
prúðr proud; splendid (adj)
prútt gallantly (adv)
Old Norse --- English --- Top a æ b c d e f g h i j k l m n o œ p r s t u v w y z þ
ráð advice, counsel; expedient, means; plan; agreement; authority; intention; policy; wish; taka (til) ráðs - adopt a plan; resolve; agreement; sjá at ráði - think advisable; authority; good counsel, what is advisable; þykkja ráð - seem advisable (n)
ráða advise, counsel; consult about; rule; discuss; plot; set, arrange; decide; govern; prevail; have to deal with; go, take one's way; ráða á - progress, have to deal with interpret; go, take one's way; ráða aptr - return, hire, engage; ráða fyrir - have power; ráða heilræði - give one wholesome counsel; ráða sér vist - get a place for oneself; ráða sinum (ráðum) - hold a conference; rēddo sik saman til hans dødh (‡) - they conspired against his life; ráða af - do away with, kill; decide, rule, govern; prevail; settle a poilicy; ráða fyrir - have power; ráða sér vist - get a place for oneself; ráða til - hire, engage; ráða um - consult about, discuss; ráðask til skips - go on board ship (ship/sailing term) (v)
ráðagørð counsel; eiga ráðagørð - take counsel (f)
ráð-ligr advisable
raðsnjallr wise in counsel (adj)
Ráðsviðr Rathsvith, Counsel-sharp
ræddoghe fear (m)
ræfr roof (n)
ræið-Wiðurr (‡) sea-captain, 'Oðin of the chariot (of the sea)' (m)
ræna, ráena plunder, rob, deprive of (v)
ræt-vis (‡) righteous (adj)
ræt-vīsa (‡) righteousness (f)
rætzl (‡) government (f)
ragna-røk(k)r Ragnarok, the twilight of the gods, the world's end (also referred to as the ragna rök - doom of the gods) (n)
Ragnarr Ragnar (personal name); Ragnarr loðbrók - Ragnar Shaggy-breeches, a legendary Viking chieftain of the 9th century (m)
Ragnarsson Ragnar's son
ragr effeminate, cowardly, (passively) homosexual (adj)
raka rake (v)
rakæ (aþ) (‡) rake, shave (v)
rakki dog
rakki parrel (a sliding ring or collar that confines the yard and sail to the mast but allows vertical movement) (ship/sailing term)
rá-lík sail (vertical leech of sail) (ship/sailing term)
rammligr strong (adj)
rammr strong; mighty, powerful; rammr at afli - extremely strong (adj)
Rangárvellir Rangarvellir (place name), Rang River Plains
rangr crooked, unjust: wrong, false (adj)
rang-sœlis against the course of the sun (adv)
rás hurry, race (v)
rasa (að) rush, stumble (v)
rata (að) fall down; travel about, rove (v)
Ratatoskr (also Ratatöskr) Ratatosk, the squirrel that carries insults between Níðhöggr and the eagle (m)
rauðlitaðr ruddy-complexioned (adj)
rauðr red (also frequently as a descriptor for gold) (adj)
rauð-skeggjaðr red-bearded; hinn Rauðskeggjaði - Þor (Thor) (adj)
rauf hole (f)
Raumaríki Raumariki (place name) (n)
raun test; trial (f)
raunar-lítit very little
réa vex (v)
Refill name of a sword (m)
Refr Ref (personal name) Refr inn rauði - Ref the Red (m)
refsinga-laust without punishment (adv)
regin gods, powers, rulers (n pl)
reginkunnr divine, of divine origin
Reginn Regin; son of Hreidmar, brother of Fafnir the dragon (m)
reið riding; chariot (f)
reiða service; skulu þér til reiðu - will be at your service (f)
reiða (dd) swing; swing up, raise; reiða fram - swing down, strike a blow; reiddi sik - threw himself (v)
reiðask become angry (v)
reiði anger, wrath; af reiði - in anger, out of anger (f)
reiði harness, trappings; rigging, tackle; ship's equipment (ship/sailing term) (m and n)
reiðr angry, offended (adj)
reiðr, vreiðr angry
reifr cheerful (adj)
reip rope, trace (n)
reisa (t) raise, set up; láta reisa stein - have a stone raised (v)
reisiligr magnificent, fine (adj)
reka, vrækæ (‡) drive, herd; drive onto shore, wreck; avenge, take vengeance for; depose; thrust; reka af þér - clear yourself of; reka landi - drive from the land, send into exile; reka flótta - pursue a fleeing force; reka frá - depose, clear away; reka rétta - take due vengeance; perform, do (an errand); reka spor - follow tracks or footprints; rekinn blóði - blood-stained (v)
rekaviðr driftwood (m)
reki jetsam; driftage, a thing drifted ashore, wreck (m)
rekja track, trace (v)
rekkja bed; fara í rekkju - go to bed (f)
rekkr warrior, man (m)
rella gripe (v)
réna diminish, dwindle (v)
renna run; í kǫpp við - to run a race with; hǫfgi rann á hann - he fell asleep; renna af - pass away from one; dagr rann upp - it dawned; renna upp - make raids on (vi); put to flight (vt)
renna (d) make run, roll; renna augum - direct the eyes, look; atgeirinn rendi í gegnum skjǫldinn - the spear was run through the shield (v)
Resstaðir Refsstadir (place name) Ref's farmstead (m pl)
rétt (r) right, rightly; directly (adv)
rétta atone for (v)
rétta (tt) reach, stretch up or out; raise; put right; atone for; rétta fram - stretch out; ríttisk upp - stood up to his full height (v)
rétt-leitr having regular features (adj)
rétt-ligr correct, without flaw (adj)
réttr right, lawful claim; cause, condition; law; treaty (m)
réttr just, fair; right, correct, straight; unswerving; direct; rétt framan í hann - straight at him (adj)
rēuus (‡) were fighting; rēwo (‡) - tore (v)
reyðr rorqual, large baleen whale (f)
Reykjanes Reykjanes, Headland of Smoke (place name) (n)
Reykjarvík Reykjavik, Bay of Smoke (f)
reykr smoke (m)
reyna (d) try, prove; experience; reyna ilt af - meet with evil at the hands of; reyndr vas flestr - most were put to the test; be proved; reynt er - trial has been made; be proved (v)
reynir one who tests; munka reynir - God (m)
ríða twist, wind; ríða knút - tie a knot (v)
ríða ride; ride over; riða ofan - descend (v)
riddari rider, horseman (m)
rif rib; reef (in the sea) (n)
rífa rip, tear (v)
Rifsker Rifsker (place name), Rocky or Rib Reef (n)
ríki realm; kingdom; power, authority (n)
ríkismaðr great man,prominent man, wealthy man, man of power (m)
ríkr powerful, great, magnificent; mighty (adj)
ringhabrynia (‡) coat of ring mail (f)
rinna run, flow (v)
ript clothes (f)
rísa arise, rise, stand up, get up; rísa upp - rise up, get up (v)
rísmál rise time, time to rise, a roughly three hour portion of the day beginning about 6:00 a.m. (n)
risna hospitality, liberality (f)
rista, rísta cut (runes), carve, engrave; form by carving; láta rísta rúnar - have runes carved (v)
ríta write; scratch, cut; cut runes (v)
rjóða redden, make red (v)
rjóðr clearing, open space in a forest (n)
rjóðr red, ruddy (adj)
rjúfa break, break a hole in; rjúfa sáttmál - break an agreement or truce; rýfr veðrit - the weather clears (v)
rjúka reek, smoke; go flying, tumble (v)
rest; bið ró - have rest; biða ró - have quiet (f)
róa row; róa fyrir (landi) - row along (the shore) (v)
rǫcstóll judgment or council seat
rǫð rank (f)
Roðbertr löngumspaði Robert Longsword, (c. 893 – 17 December 942), second ruler of Normandy (m)
rǫdd voice (f)
roðinn reddened; blood-stained (adj)
róðr rowing, pulling (m)
rǫðull sun (m)
rœða speak, converse, discuss (v)
rœða talk, conversation (f)
rœða (dd) speak; rœða um - speak about, discuss (v)
rœ-k See róa
rof break, breaking, opening (n)
róg slander, contention (n)
Rogaland Rogaland (placename)
rǫggvar-feldr shaggy cloak (m)
rógmálmr gold, metal of strife (m)
rōg-starkr (‡) strong in battle
rök judgment, doom (n pl)
røk(k)r twilight (n)
rómr applause; alþýðu rómr - common opinion (m)
rǫnd rim; shield (f)
röng hull (frame of ship's hull)
roppa tail (f)
rǫskliga gallantly (adv)
röskr sturdy, vigorous, brave (adj)
röst unit of distance between two resting stages (perhaps equivalent to the Old Scandinavian mile); usually between four and five English miles; league (f)
rót root (f)
róta (að) upset, throw into disorder; róta í sundr - knock apart (v)
ru = eru are (v)
rúm hold or compartment in hold (ship/sailing term)
rúm room, space; seat; bed (n)
rún rune, a letter in the runic futhark; secret, mystery; secret wisdom, secret writing; (f); mysteries, charms (f pl)
ryðja clear, empty, prepare, pile up (or clear away) (v)
rygr housewife (f)
rȳni-maþr (‡) rune man (one skilled in runes) (m)
rýnstr most skilled in rune-craft (m)
Old Norse --- English --- Top a æ b c d e f g h i j k l m n o œ p r s sk sp t u v w y z þ
that, the; sá er - he who (pron and art)
sow (v)
sá er whoever, he who (pron)
saðr true
sæhafa sea-tossed, driven off one's course; verða sæhafa - be drive off one's course (adj)
Sæhrímnir Sæmhrimnir, the boar who feeds the warriors in Valhöll (m)
sæla happiness; prosperity
sæll fortunate, happy (adj)
sællifðr living happily, having a happy life
sæmd honor
sæmiligr honorable
Sæmundr Saemund (personal name)
sæng bed (f)
sær sea (m)
sær (sævar) sea, inlet of the sea; lake
særa wound (v)
sæta (tt) signify, amount to; wait in ambush, waylay; undergo, suffer; bring about, cause; hverju þetta sætti - what was the cause if this (v)
sæti seat (n)
sætt reconciliation, settlement; settlement of suits; atonement, agreement; at sætt - as atonement (f)
sætta (tt) reconcile; make peace among; sættask at því - settle on such terms, agree; sættask - come to terms, settle, agree, be reconciled; sættask á - agree to (v)
sævar-gangr heavy sea; surge of sea; flood (m)
safna collect, gather (v)
saga story; history; what is said, saga, legend; saga til - a story about (f)
saka (að) do harm (v)
sá-k-a-k I have not seen
sakeyrir fine (m)
saklauss innocent, guiltless
sakna miss; feel the loss of (v)
sál, sála soul (f)
sáld cask, vat; a measure (containing about 150 lbs. of wheat) (n)
salr hall, house consisting of one room; (m) (a complex) dwelling; ground (m pl)
sama befit, beseem (v)
saman together (adv)
sam-eign dealings; conflict (f)
samför relationship, marriage (f)
sam-gangr conflict (m)
samka gather; collect (v)
sammœðr of the same mother (adj)
samna gather; collect (v)
samnaðr gathering, host (m)
samr same; ísamt - together; ina sömu nótt - on the same night; it sama - the same, likewise; sem samt sé - in the same way (adj pron)
sámr swarthy, blackish (adj)
sam-ræði life together; vildi ekki samræði við Eirik - would not live with Eirik (n)
samu-laiþ (‡) likewise
sand-himinn the sea (m)
sandr sand; beach, shore (m)
sanna (að) affirm; (refl.) prove to be true; sannaz - be affirmed, prove to be true (v)
sanne-līka (‡) in truth
sannindi truth (n pl)
sannliga truly (adv)
sannligr just, fair, proper (adj)
sann-nefni appropriate, truthful name (n)
sannr, saðr true; it sanna - the truth; at sǫnnu - in truth; til sanns - of a truth (adj)
san-saghæ (‡) true saying (f)
sár, saar (‡) wound (n)
sārga (aþ) (‡) wound (v)
sárr wounded; painful, sore (adj)
sá-si this (pron)
sáttr reconciled; at peace (adj)
sauðahús sheep pen, sheep-fold (n)
sauða-jarmr bleating of sheep (m)
sauða-maðr shepherd (m)
sauðar-vǫmb sheep's stomach (f)
sauðr sheep (m)
sauð-vant sheep-lacking'; er sauð-vant - sheep are missing (adj)
sauma (að) sew (v)
saurr mud, filth (m)
sax short-sword; knife (n)
scattr (‡), skat (‡) tax, tribute (m)
sefask be pacified (v)
seggr man; warrior; boy; hero (m)
segja say, tell; stipulate; segja frá - tell of, relate; segja til - inform on; give information of; segja til sin - tell one's name; segja upp - declare, pronounce; segisk þar vílja vera - he says he wishes to stay there (v)
segja (sagða) say, speak; tell, tell of; relate; segja frá - reveal, tell about; segja til - tell, inform of; segja til sin - give one's name (v)
segl sail (ship/sailing term) (n)
seiðr spell, enchantment (m)
seilask (d) to stretch out one's hand
seiling graspingness (f)
seinn slow; tedious; late (adj)
seint coldly; slowly (adv)
sekr guilty; convicted; outlawed, condemned to outlawry; ger sekan - condemn to outlawry (adj)
sekt outlawry; penalty (f)
sel shepherd hut; shieling (a hut used in the mountains by shepherds; mountain pasture used for the grazing of cattle in summer) (n)
selja, sæliæ give; sell; hand over to another (v)
sem who; which; as; as if, that; while; when; where; (with superlative) as … as possible; jafn ... sem - equal to; sem lengst - as soon (long) as possible; hvat sem - whatever; þar sem - where, whereas (conj)
senda (d) send (v)
sendi-buþi (‡) messenger (m)
sendi-ferð mission, errand (f)
sendi-maðr messenger (m)
senn at once, at the same time; straight away (adv)
serkr shirt (m)
sess rower's seat
set seat, room in which one sits, raised wooden floor along the walls of a hall; (n) residence(s) (n pl)
sét er nú sét - it is now obvious
setja set; seat; place, put; make; set up; set (in a course), direct; establish; endow; hurl; adorn; setja til ríkis - put in power; setja á - hurl at; setja bú saman - establish a farm; setja upp - set, stand up; setja upp skip - beach a ship (ship/sailing term); setja við - prepare; setjask - seat oneself, sit; setjask upp - sit up (v)
setstokkar wooden plank dividing up or marking the edge of the set; beam (The partition beam from a hall) (m)
sétti sixth (ordinal num)
sex six (num)
sex tigir, sex-tighi (‡) sixty (num)
sex-tán sixteen (num)
sex-tándi sixteenth (ord num)
seyðir fire (cooking fire); búa til seyðis - prepare for cooking (m)
seyra starvation (f)
sí-byrða (ð) lay (a ship) alongside (in a sea fight) (ship/sailing term) (v)
síð late; síðar - later; síðast - latest, last (adv)
síða bewitch; practice sorcery (v)
síða side (f)
síðan afterwards, since then; síðan er - since, because (conj)
síðar later (adv)
síðast latest (adv)
síðastr last (adv)
síðir in; um (or of) síðir - at last (f pl)
síðr custom; religion (m)
síðr hanging, long, overhanging (adj)
síðr less (adv)
sið-venja custom (f)
Sif Sif, a goddess, the wife of Thor (f)
sifjar affinity; spilla sifjar - commit incest (f pl)
sifja-slit incest (n)
síga sink gently down; glide, move slowly; yield (v)
siga (að) sink (ship/sailing term), yield (v)
Sigfaðir Sigfather, 'Victory-father', a name for Óðinn (m)
Sighurþarsun Sigurtharson (personal name)
Sighvatr Sighvat (personal name); Sighvatr inn rauðr - Sighvat the Red (m)
sigla sail, carry sail; sigla með - sail along; sail past (ship/sailing term) (v)
sigla mast (ship/sailing term) (f)
sigling sailing (ship/sailing term) (f)
siglura yard (ship/sailing term)
siglutré mast (ship/sailing term)
signa mark with the sign of the cross (v)
sigr (rs) victory (m)
sigra overcome; gain the victory (v)
sigrsæll victorious (adj)
Sigurðr Sigurd (personal name); Sigurðr slefa - Sigurd the Slobberer (m)
sik self (him-, her-, it-self; them-selves; one-self)
silfr silver (n)
silki silk (n)
silkitreya silken jacket (f)
sinn his, her, its, their (pron)
sínn own, one's own (v)
sinn(i) time (of repetition), occasion; at sinni - for the present; eigi optar at sinni - not more than once; eitt sinn - one time; einu sinni - once, for once; hvert sinn - every (n)
sinni host; companion (m); host, company (m pl)
sipill potlicker
Síreksstaðir Sirek's Farmstead
sitja sit; stay, remain; reside; sitja fyrir - sit by, be at hand; á sér sitja - control oneself, be quiet; sitja við - sit beside or at; sitja yfir matborði (or borðum) - sit at table, sit at a meal (v)
sízt least; last (adv)
sjá see, gaze; know of; perceive, understand; look; sja á - look upon; at sjá - in appearance; sjá sik siðan - survive; sjá í - look into, take into consideration; sjá eptir - extra compensation for the death of; sjá fyrir - provide for, direct, decide; sjá við - be on one's guard against; sjásk um - look about (v)
sjá this
Sjáland Zealand, Sjælland in modern Danish (place name) (n)
sjaldan seldom; sjaldnar - more seldom (adv)
sjálf-ala finding their own food (adj)
sjálf-dœmi self-judgment (m)
sjálfr self; him-, her-, it-self; themselves (adj pron)
sjálf-ráðr free; er þér sjálfrátt - you are free to (adj)
sjálf-sáinn growing wild, self-sown
sjálf-vili free-will (m)
sjálf-viljandi of one's own accord
sjau seven (num)
sjau hundruð ok þrír tigir seven hundred thirty (num)
sjau tigir seventy (num)
sjau-tján seventeen (num)
sjávarafli catch of fish; bounty of the sea (m)
sjóða boil, cook (v)
sjón look, gaze (f)
sjónhverfing optical illusion (caused by a spell) (f)
sjónlauss blind, sightless (adj)
sjór sea; fyrir ofan sjó - above the waterline (m)
sjǫt abode; company; host (n pl)
Old Norse --- English --- Top a æ b c d e f g h i j k l m n o œ p r s sk sp t u v w y z þ
skaða (að) harm, do harm to (v)
skaði harm, damage, loss; death (m)
skær steed; Gjalpar skær - wolf, 'horse of Gjalp'
skafa scrape, shave; allot (lit scrape off for you) (v)
Skáfiðr Skafith (personal name)
skaka shake (v)
skála-endi end of a hall (m)
skála-veggr wall of the hall (m)
skáld, skald poet, skald (n)
skáld-skapr poetry, poetic art (m)
skáld-skaprmál poetic diction (n pl)
skáli hall, main hall, sleeping-hall; shed (m)
Skallagrímr Skalla-Grim (personal name), Bald-Grim (m)
skálm sword (short sword), cleaver (f)
skálm-ǫld sword age (the age of the sword) (f)
skálpr scabbard (m)
skam shame
skami (‡) shame, disgrace (m)
skamm-degi short winter days (n)
skammr short; brief; fyrir skǫmmu - a short time ago (adj)
skammt, skamt short distance or time, not far (place) (adv)
Skáney Skåne, Denmark (place name), now part of Sweden (f)
skap mood, state, condition, temper; character; hafa skap til - be disposed to; honum var þetta mjǫk móti skapi - he took this greatly to heart; lítill í skapi - mean-sirited; vera í skapi - be on one's mind; be one's desire; gøra til skaps - do a thing to please one (n)
skapa (að) make, shape, form, create; determine; applause; skera ok skapa - fix the terms (v)
skapari creator
skap-feldr agreeable, to one's mind (adj)
skap-góðr good-tempered; er skappgott - one is in good spirits (adj)
skap-leikr disposition, character (m)
skap-lyndi mood, disposition (n)
skap-raun annoyance, vexation (f)
skapraunar-minna less vexatious (adj)
skap-skipti change of mood (n)
skaps-munir disposition (m pl)
skapt handle, shaft of cart; á hávu skapti - on a long shaft; (n)
skarðr diminished; sitja fyrir skart um - live in want of (adj)
skarpr scorched, pinched, chafing (adj)
skartsmaðr dandy, lover of finery (m)
skat (‡) tribute (m)
skat-gildær (‡) one who pays tribute (m)
skati leader, ruler (m)
skattr tribute, tax (m)
skaut sheet, corner of the sail (ship/sailing term); hem, border, end of cloak; láta skaut horfa á land - sail along the coast (n)
skegg beard (n)
skeggjaðr bearded (adj)
skegg-ǫld battle-axe age (age of the battle axe) (f)
skeið race course; running-ground; knarrar skeið - sea, 'ship course' (n)
skeinuhættr likely to wound (adj)
skel shell (f)
skelfa (ð) frighten, make tremble (v)
skellr blow, stroke (m)
skemmr shorter; lengr eða skemmr - for a long or short while (adv)
skemta entertain, amuse (v)
skemtiligr entertaining, amusing (adj)
skemtun amusement , pastime (f)
skenkja serve with drink (v)
skepia (skóp, skapða) make, create; pronounce, impose, decree (v)
sker rock; skerry, isolated rock sticking out to sea (n)
skera cut, shear; cut through; cut open, pierce; make incisions, carve; slaughter; skera upp - dispatch; skerask undan - draw back from (v)
skiær (‡) clear (adj)
skíð ski; snow-skate; stick; wood (block of wood); wooden tablet or stave; one of the boards forming a door frame; skið Atals grundar - ship, 'ski of the land of Atal' (n)
skið-garðr shields in a row on the bulwarks of a ship, 'fortress of the snow-skate (of the sea)' (m)
skikkja cloak (f)
skilja perceive (v)
skilja (ð, d) separate, divide, part, part company, disband; understand; perceive; skilja á - stipulate; skilja við - part from; skilja frá - exempt from; skilja fyr - make known to, proclaim to; skiljask við - part from, forsake; þá skilr á um - they fall out over, differ, disagree about (v)
skillingr shilling, i.e., piece of money; money (m pl)
skilnaðr parting (m)
skína shine; flash, gleam, emit rays (v)
skinn skin, hide, fur (n)
Skinna-Björn Bjorn Fur-Skins (personal name) (m)
skinnavara furs, fur-ware (f)
skinn-hjúpr fur doublet (m)
skinni skinner (nickname) (m)
skip ship, boat (n)
skipa (að) equip; provide; set, place; arrange, array; man, occupy; draw up; assign (a seat); put in order; set; crowd, throng; skipa til - make arrangements, prepare for, undergo a change, make a change; be arranged, drawn up; skipask umhverrvis húsin - surround the house (v)
skipan crew; change (f)
skipflak wreck (ship/sailing term) (n)
skipför voyage, sailing, passage of a ship (f)
skipsbrot shipwreck (ship/sailing term) (n)
skipta divide; share; change; amount to; shape; exchange; decide; have dealings in; decide (course of events); engu þá skipta - was no business of theirs; amount to; þat skipti mǫrgum dœgrum - this lasted many days; ef því er at skipta - if it comes to that; skipta sér af - concern oneself with; assign (v)
skipti division (n); dealings (n pl)
skíra (ð) baptize (v)
skirja cow (young cow)
skírn baptism (f)
Skirvir Skirvir (personal name)
skjald-borg shield wall, protection (f)
skjálfa shake, tremble (v)
skjall white membrane of an egg (n)
skjarr shy (adj)
skjóðu-pungr skin-purse (m)
skjǫldr, skjöldr shield (m)
skjólfa shake, tremble (v)
skjóta throw; shoot; hop; launch (boat); roll (the eyes); var skotit váðási - a pole was set up; skjóta sér - fall; (v)
skjót-fœri speed, swiftness (n)
skjótla quickly (adv)
skjót-leikr fleetness (m)
skjót-liga swiftly (adv)
skjót-ligr swift (adj)
skjótr swift, quick; sem skjótast - as soon as possible, straightaway (adj)
skjótt suddenly (adv)
skóð weapon (n)
skoða (að) look, spy
Sköfnungr (also Sköflungr) Skofnung, possible Shin Bone, the name of King Hrolf's sword (m)
skógar-maðr outlaw (m)
skóg-land forest, wood; well-wooded land (m)
skógr forest, wood (m)
skokkr box, receptacle (m)
skökull harness, trace (of harness) (m)
Skoll Skoll, the wolf that pursues the sun (m)
skǫmm shame (f)
skór shoe (m)
skǫr, skör hair, locks (f)
skorta be lacking; be lacking to one; skortir - one is in want of; one is short of, one lacks (v)
skǫru-ligr manly, bold; magnificent; of distinguished appearance (adj)
skǫrungr, skörungr leader, notable or outstanding person, paragon (m)
skó-sveinn servant, page (m)
skot missiles, shooting, shot (n)
skot-hríð shower of missiles (f)
Skotland Scotland (place name) (n)
skótt quickly (adv)
Skozkr Scottish
skrapæ (ath) (‡) scrape; skrapæ af (‡) - erase (v)
skreppa slip (v)
skreyja incompetent (adj)
skriða landslide (f)
skríða ski, glide, slide (on skis), crawl (v)
skrifa (að) write; scrifwaz (‡) - it is written (v)
skrípi phantom, horror (n)
skrīuæ (‡) write (v)
skrǫkva (að) falsify a story (v)
skrúð mailcoat; cloth, stuff (n)
Skuld Skuld (personal name, mythological), Debt, 'that which should become', norn (name of a norn); valkyrie (name of a valkyrie)
skuld debt; í skuld - on credit (f)
Skuld Skuld, Debt, that which should become, one of the three Norns) (f)
skulda-lið family, dependents (n)
skulu must, shall (obligation, purpose, necessity, fate); should; ought (v)
skúr shower (f)
skurðr cutting, slice; a trench; the flensing of a whale (m)
skúta boat, small ship
Skútaðar-Skeggi Skeggi of Skutad (personal name) (m)
skutil-sveinn cup-bearer; trencherman; officer of high rank (m)
skutr cabin (back cabin); skutr munknarrar - memory (m)
ský, sky cloud (n)
skyggna (d) spy, peer
skykkjum shake, go rocking (adv)
skyld reason; sake; tax, due; incumbrance (on an estate) (f)
skyldr bound, obliged; due; urgent; obligatory; related to; related by kinship; right; skyldir þjónustumenn - bond-servants; skyldæstæstr - nearest (related) (adj)
skyn knowledge; kunna skyn á - have knowledge of (f)
skynda (d) hurry, cause to hasten; hasten (v)
skyndi-liga hastily, quickly (adv)
skynsam-liga carefully, intelligently (adv)
skyr curdled milk (n)
skýrr clear, manifest; gøra skýrt - make definite (adj)
skyrta kirtle, coat (f)
slá strike, smite; forge; mow, cut grass; slá hring - form a ring; slá beizli við (hest) - to bridle a horse; sló ótta yfir - fear fell upon him (v)
slækt (‡) kind, order (f)
slátr meat, flesh (f)
slátra (að) slaughter (v)
slefa saliva, slobber, slobberer (as nickname) (f)
slefja dribbler
Sleipnir Sleipnir, Odin's horse (m)
sleita quarrel; ganga sleitum - to quarrel (v)
sleppa slip; escape, slip away; fail, slip up (v)
sletta slap (v)
sléttr level, smooth (adj)
slíðir, slíðrar scabbard, sheath (f pl)
slíkr such (adj)
slíkt in such a way (adv)
slíta break; rend; snap; tear; slitit er þínginu - the assembly is ended; þar til er ór slítr - until it is quite finished (v)
slitna (að) break; snap (v)
slitri rag, torn piece (n)
slœgr profit (m)
slœgr clever, crafty (adj)
sløkkva extinguish (v)
sløngva hurl (v)
slyngva, slungnir throw, fling; wind about (v)
slys-gjarnt vereðr slys-gjarnt - one has bad luck (adj)
smala-ferð herding the sheep (f)
smala-maðr herdsman, shepherd (m)
smali sheep (n)
smá-menn men of little power, insignificant men (m pl)
smár small, little (adj)
smá-sakir petty suits (f pl)
smá-skitligr insignificant; undersized (adj)
smá-þarmar intestines, small-guts (m pl)
smíð building, work (f)
smíða (að) build, forge, make (v)
smiðar-kaup payment for building (n)
smíði object (made object); dverga smiði - sword; í smiði - under construction (n)
smiðja smithy (f)
smiðr smith; builder; artificer (m)
smjör butter (n)
Smjörvatnsheiðr Smjorvatnsheid (place name), Butter-Lake Heath (f)
smjúga creep through an opening; pierce (v)
smyriæ (‡), smurþe (‡) grease (v)
snær, snjár, snjór snow (m)
snara twist, step quickly (v)
snar-liga in haste (adv)
snarp-liga sharply, with energy (adv)
snarpr severe, hard (adj)
snarr bold (adj)
sneiða (dd) taunt; sneer at; slice; glance off (v)
snemma early (adv)
snemt early (adj)
snerta touch; concern (v)
sneypa disgrace, shameful rebuff (f)
sníða cut (v)
snim-hendis early, soon (adv)
snimma early (adv)
snjallr eloquent, clever in speech; brave (adj)
snjár, snjór, snær snow (m)
snjófa snow (v)
Snorradóttir Snorri's daughter
snót lady (f)
snotr (ran) wise, clever (adj)
snúa turn; twist, tie; turn; go; plait; direct; snúa til - commit to; snúa undan skipi - turn one's ship to flee (ship/sailing term); snúin þar fyrir speld - protected with shutters; snúask aptir - turn back; snúa at - turn on one; snúask fram - go forth; snúask í - fall into (a fury); snúask til - turn oneself into; turn to; snúask til ferðar - set out on a journey (v)
sō (‡) so, thus
sǫðull saddle (m)
sœkja attack; advance; proceed (v)
sœkja attack; advance; proceed, go; seek; pursue; go to fetch; visit; come to; reach; sœkja at - rush at, assail; sœkja fram - advance, seek with hostile intent, attack; sœkja heim - go to see one; attack one in his house; sœkja í hendr - attack; fá (or getta) sótt - get successfully attacked, overcome; sœkja til - visit, come to, seek out; þeim muni illa sœkjask at vinna oss - it will be a hard struggle for them to master us; illa sóttisk þeim Gunnar - they had hard work to overcome Gunnar (v)
sœmð, sœmd honor; redress, compensation (f)
sœmi-ligr honorable; becoming (adj)
Sœnskr Swedish (adj); Swede
sœra (ð) wound (v)
sœri oaths (n pl)
sofa sleep; sofa at ótt - sleep through the night (v)
sofna (að) fall asleep; vera sofanaðr (v)
sǫgn account, report (f)
sǫk cause, reason, sake; action; charge; offense; suit, lawsuit, dispute; fyrir sakar - on account of, because of, by reason of; gøra til saka við - commit offenses against one; sakir, sakar - because of, for the sake of; um viku sakar - for a week; sǫkum, fyrir sǫkum - because of (f)
sokkr sock, stocking; einir sokkar - pair of socks (m)
søkkva sink (v)
sókn fight, attack (f)
Sóknadalr Soknadale (place name) (m)
sól sun (f)
sólar-setr sunset (n)
sólar-sinnis following the course of the sun (adv)
sól-bjǫrg sunset (f)
sólskin sunshine (n)
soltinn hungry, starving (adj)
sóma (d) become, beseem (v)
sómi honor; compensation (m)
sonar-dauði death of a son (m)
sonargjöld wergeld, ransom, or compensation for a dead son (n pl)
sonar-son, sonarsonr grandson; son's son (m)
sǫngr song; singing; clash, clang (m)
sonr son (m)
sópa sweep (v)
sopi mouthful, draft (m)
sortna grow black or dark (v)
Sótanes Sotaness (place name) (n)
sótt illness, sickness (f)
sóttar-far sickness (n)
sótt-dauðr dead of sickness; hann varð sótt-dauðr - he died of illness (i.e., in his bed)
søzs (‡) was boiled (v)
Old Norse --- English --- Top a æ b c d e f g h i j k l m n o œ p r s sk sp t u v w y z þ
spá prophecy, song of fate (f)
spaði spade, shovel (m)
spakara more wisely (adj)
spá-kona prophetess, sibyl (f)
spakr wise, learned; quiet (adj)
spánn chip, shaving; spoon (m)
spannar-langr of a span's length (adj)
spara (ð, að) spare; spara við - grudge, deny; sparask til - spare oneself for (v)
spekð peace; wisdom (f)
speki wisdom; branch of learning, body of knowledge (f)
speld shutter (n)
spenna (t) span, clasp; spenna sik - gird oneself with (v)
spiall spell, words, tiding (n); tale (n pl)
spilla (t) destroy, spoil (v)
spillr spoiler; spillir bauga - spoiler of rigs, generous prince (m)
spinna spin (v)
spjǫr spears;spor Dags hriðar - wound (n pl)
spjót spear, lance (n)
spǫlr bar, rail; short piece (m)
spor track, trail, footprint; step, foothold; wound (n)
sporðr tail; shield tail, lower pointed end of a shield (m)
sporna (að) spurn; tread, set one's feet upon; sporna við - resist (v)
spörr sparrow (m)
spretta spring up, burst forth; start, spring; sprout; make spring apart, split (v)
springa jump, spring; issue forth; burst; die from overexertion or grief (v)
spyrja (spurði) ask; hear, hear of, learn, find out, be informed of; trace; spyrr engan at - asks no one about it, asks leave of none; spyrjat - do not ask; spyrjask eptir - make inquiry (v)
spyrna (d) kick; place the feet; spyrna í iljar - touch one another with the soles of the feet (two men lying on their backs) (v)
staa (‡) stand; staa atir - remain (v)
staddr placed, present; situated; staying; staddr við - present
staðfesta farm, homestead (f)
staðr place, spot; abode, dwelling; stead, parcel of land; part; way, respect; nema stað - halt; annars staðr - elsewhere (m)
staf-garðr holy enclosure (m)
staf-karl beggar, tramp (m)
stafn stem of a ship, usually the prow; stern; með stǫfnum - from stem to stern (ship/sailing term) (m)
stafn-búi forecastle guard (ship/sailing term) (m)
stafr wooden staff, stick; pole, timber; crozier (m)
stag stay (ship/sailing term)
stál steel; steeled weapon (n)
stallari marshal (m)
stalli altar (heathen) (m)
stallr stall; perch (for hawks); pedestal (m)
standa stand (firm); stay, remain; stick; rest, stop; befit, become; catch, overtake; get up; take up a position; stand in ranks; be in a place; remain valid; be in a specified condition; trend, flow; weigh; standa af - be caused by; standa fast - stand firm; standa í - be engaged in; be fixed in; standa í sigreip - sit a horse, ride; standa undir - be subject to; support to; standa upp - stand up (from seat); get up from bed; standa uppi - be aground (ship/sailing term); standa við - stand leaning against; standa við - withstand, resist; standa yfir - last; exist; æighi verr standa - be none the worse for it; svá sem straumr stœði - like a rushing torrent; standask á - stand opposite; þat stœðisk mjǫk svá - (they believed that) they thus were directly opposite each other; standask við - defy (v)
stanga ram, (head)butt, gore (of cattle); stangask - butt each other (v)
starf trouble, work (n)
starfa work (v)
starfa (að) work (v)
starfa-minna less arduous (adj)
stark (‡), starkir (‡) strong (adj)
staþga (‡) establish; staggaþr - last, secure (v)
staþgi (‡) agreement (m)
steði anvil, stithy (m)
steðja stop; fix, settle (v)
stefna refrain, repeated comment or phrase (n)
stefna direction, course; meeting; appointment; summons (f)
stefna (d) go in a certain direction; turn to; advance; aim at; call, call together, summon (v)
stefnu-dagr summoning-days, days assigned by law on which summoning was to be done (m pl)
steikja roast (v)
steina paint (v)
Steinbjörn Steinbjorn, Stone-Bear (personal name) (m)
stein-dyrr doorway of stone (f pl)
steinn stone, rock; cave or stone dwelling; [poetic] precious stone, jewel (m)
Steinn Stein (place name) Stone (m)
stein-smíði stone implements (n)
stela steal, rob, rob one of (v)
stēna (t) (‡) stain, color (v)
sterkliga strongly (adv)
sterkr strong (adj)
steypa throw down; totter, fall in ruin; steypask útan borðs - leap overboard; stœyptuz ór brynium - they threw off their mail-coats (v)
stiarna star (f)
stíga step, walk; tread; stíga á hest - mount a horse; stífa af hesti, stíga af baki - dismount a horse; stíga storum - take long steps; stíga fram - step forward; stíga í - step on or into; stíga upp á stokk ǫðrum fœti - set one foot up on the planking-beam (v)
stígr path, way (m)
stig-ræip (‡) stirrup (n)
stikill point (m)
stikkæ stick of wood (f)
stikla leap, run (v)
stikubligr stick-gazer, miser (nickname) (m)
stilla arrange; stilla til um - make arrangements (v)
stillR ruler (m)
stiltr controlled
stinga stab, thrust (v)
stinnr stiff, unbending, strong (adj)
stirð-lyndr harsh (adj)
stirðr harsh, severe; stiff, rigid (adj)
stirt harshly (adv)
stjarna star (f)
stjórna rule over, govern, command (v)
stjórn-borði starboard side, 'steering-side' (m)
stjórnsamr ambitious, overbearing (adj)
stóð stud (of horses) (n)
stóð-hross stud-horse; mare (n)
støðr (‡) standing firm
stöðull milking pen (for cows) (m)
stǫðva stop, halt (v)
stoeðingr brace (ship/sailing term)
stofa stove room, a room in a long house, secondary to the eldaskáli and warmed by a stove of flat stones; served as a living room, where women worked the looms, families sat in the evenings, and feasts were held; sitting room (f)
stokkr log, plank, piece of wood; wooden beam; base of an anvil (m)
støkkva spring, burst, leap; spring asunder; snap; drive; be sprinkled; støkkva útan - spring back (v)
støkkva (ð, t) drive (v)
stóll, stōll (‡) stool, chair; bishop's see; king's throne or residence (m)
stolther (‡) proud, magnificent (adj)
stǫng, stöng pole, staff, standard-pole (f)
stór-illa very ill, very badly
størkla (t) strengthen (v)
stórlátr proud, haughty, arrogant (adj)
stór-mannligr magnificent, grand (adj)
stór-menni men of rank, big men (n)
stórmenska generosity; magnanimity (f)
stórmerki mystery, sacrament; notable thing; great wonders (n pl)
stormr storm (m)
stórr huge, great, big (adj)
stór-ráðr daring; haughty; ambitious (adj)
stór-skorinn huge (of huge proportions) (adj)
stórum hugely (adv)
stór-vel right well (adv)
stór-viðr beams (big beams) (m pl)
stór-virki deed (great deed) (n)
strá, stráa strew, spread (v)
strā-døiæ (‡) die a natural death
strand (‡) shore (f)
strandhögg shore raid, piracy; høgva strandhögg - engage in piracy (n)
straumr current, stream (m)
strengja (ð, d) fasten; swear solemnly; string tight; strengja heit - make a solemn vow (v)
strengr rope, cable (ship/sailing term); scroll; bowstring (m)
stridha (dd) (‡) make war (v)
stríðr severe (adj)
strīth (‡), striith (‡) war, battle (n)
strjúka stroke, rub, wipe; caress; smooth, brush (v)
strǫnd, strönd beach; strand; shore; coast; border; edge (f)
stund time; period of time; hour; a while, a time; af stundu - in a (short) while; stundum - sometimes; fyrir stundu - a short time ago (f)
stundar very, quite (adv)
stundi groan (v)
stundum sometimes, at times (conj)
styðja (dd), studdi rest; support; provide with supports; use as a support; stab or pierce from all sides; styðjask við - lean upon (v)
styggr shy (adj)
stynja, stundi groan, moan (v)
stynr groan, moan (m)
stýra (ð) steer, command, direct, rule, govern; manage; wield; own; swing; sér stýrt til bana - it would be his death (v)
stýri, styri helm, rudder (n)
stýri-maðr captain (of a ship), steersman (m)
stýris (‡) guidance, government (f)
styrkilse (‡) stengthening (f)
styrkr strength; assistance (m)
styrktar-maðr benefactor; supporter (m)
suðr south; southwards (adv)
suðr-æt south (f)
Suðreyjar Hebrides (from a Norwegian perspective, lit the South Isles) (f pl)
Suðreyskr Hebrides resident, someone from the Hebrides
suðr-ganga journey south (to Rome) (f)
Suðri South
Suðrlönd Southlands, Germany (n pl)
suðr-maðr southerner; a German; a Saxon (m)
suðrœn southern; from the south (adv)
Suðr-Rygirnir South Rogalanders (m pl)
súð-þakiðr roofed with overlapping boards
Súðvirki Southwark (place name) (m)
sultr hunger (m)
sumar summer; um sumarit - in the summer; hvert sumar - every summer (m)
sumars-dagr day of summer
sumars-dagr day of summer (m)
sumar-viðr wood (summer wood) (i.e. wood collected in summer for charcoal as opposed to wood for heating purposes in winter) (m)
sumr some (adj pron)
sumra draw near summer (v)
sund sound, strait (n)
sundfœrr able to swim; sundfœrr of sæ - seaworthy, lit able to swim over the sea (adj)
sundr, í sundr asunder (adv)
sunna sun (f)
sunnan southern, from the south; fyrir sunnan land - in the south of the land; sunnan af landi - from the south of the land (adv)
sunnan-þoka mist from the south (f)
sunnarstr (‡) southernmost, farthest south (adj)
Sunnudalr Sunnudal (place name) (m)
súpa sip, drink; take a sip (v)
Surtr Surt, the lord of Múspelheimr (m)
sút sorrow; sút leiðar þvengs - winter, 'serpent's sorrow' (f)
suþ-nautar (‡) brethren of the boiling, those who eat together at the sacrificial feast (m pl)
svá so, thus, in this way; also; as, as if; svát - such that, with the result that; svá sem - as if, so as; svá mikill at - so great (adv)
svæla (d) suffocate from smoke (v)
Svafrlami Svafrlami (personal name), first owner of the cursed sword named Tyrfing
svala swallow (v)
svalr cool, cold (adj)
svanni lady (m)
svanr sea-bird; swan (m)
svar answer, reply (n)
svara (að) answer (v)
svardagi oath (m)
svarð-lauss grassless (adj)
svarri haughty woman (m)
Svartálfrheimr Svartalfheim (place name, mythological) world of the dark elves (m)
svartr black
Svartr Svart (personal name) Black (m)
sváss sweet; beloved (adj)
svefn sleep (m)
svefnhús sleeping-room (n)
sveigja (ð) bend (v)
sveimun soaring, flitting (f)
svein-barn boy (n)
sveinn boy, lad, servant; page (m)
svein-stauli boy, urchin (m)
sveipa (ð, að) wrap, encircle; sweep; swing (v)
sveit group or body of men (f); troop; band, company; region; community, district (f pl)
sveitar-rækr driven out of the district
sveiti sweat, blood (m)
sveitungr follower, retainer (m)
svelga swallow, take a deep draft (v)
svell ice; fetils svell - the gleaming sword (n)
svella swell, rise high (v)
svelta die (of starvation); starve, suffer hunger; svelta hungri - starve, die of hunger (v)
sverð sword (n)
sverð-Freyr warrior, 'sword-Frey' (m)
sverðsegg sword's edge (f)
sverja (svarði) swear (an oath) (v)
Svía-konungr king of the Swedes (m)
Svíar Swedes (m pl)
svíða burn, singe; smart, cause pain (v)
sviga lae fire (bane of switches)
svigi switch (m)
svik treason (n pl)
svíkja betray (v)
svima, svimma swim (v)
svinnr swift; wise (adj)
svipan swing, blow, sweep (f)
svipstund moment (f)
svipta (t) reef (sails) (ship/sailing term); sweep; throw, fling (v)
svipting struggle; pull (f)
Svíþjóð Sweden (f)
Svíurr Sviur (personal name)
sví-virðing disgrace (f)
Svívör Svivor, a giantess killed by Thor (f)
svǫr replies, answers (n pl)
swær father-in-law
sýn, syn sight; vision (f)
sýna (d) show; appear to be, seem; exist (v)
synja deny (v)
synja (að) refuse, deny (v)
sýnum by sight, apparently (adv)
sýra sour whey (f)
syrgja (ð) sorrow; be disheartened; weep (v)
sýsla business; work (f)
systir sister; jǫtna systir - giantess (f)
systkin brother and sister (n pl)
systrungr cousin (m)
systur-son son of one's sister (m)
sytnr moaning
Old Norse --- English --- Top a æ b c d e f g h i j k l m n o œ p r s t u v w y z þ
t(h)īma (d) (‡) befall (v)
toe (f)
ta argue (v)
tæla trick, betray (v)
tafl game of tables (resembling backgammon); [from Latin tabula] (n)
taka take, capture, catch, seize; take hold of, grasp, pick up; reach, touch; begin; undertake; choose; accept, receive; begin (with infin.); reach, touch, strike against; happen, come to pass; taka af - comes loose, comes off; taka á - touch with; taka af lífi - put to death; taka hlaup - run, rush; taka í - lay hold of; reach to, extend to; taka í hǫnd - take one by the hand; taka í sunder - cut asunder; taka hǫndum - lay hands on, seize or capture; taka land - sail into land (ship/sailing term); taka mat - take food, eat; taka nafn á - be named after; taka ór - release from; taka rað af - get counsel from; taka sættum - accept compensation, allow terms; taka seint - receive coldy; taka skeið - run a course; taka sót - take sick; taka upp hǫndum - reach up; taka vel við - welcome; taka við - accept; take in, receive or welcome into one's house; take possession of, acquire, inherit; taka til - begin, set to work; choose to do, undertake; have recourse to; taka til sin - keep with them; taka um - take hold of, embrace; taka upp - pick up, remove; til máls at taka - take up the story; tók af - (his hands) were cut off; at yfir taki við oss - get the better of us; tók af byr - the favoring wind dropped; tók af hǫfuðit - the head flew off; í sundr tók manninn - the man was cleft asunder; þegar myrkva tók - as soon as it began to be dark; takask til - turn out (v)
tákna mean, signify (v)
tal talk, parley, conversation; consultation; reckoning, enumeration, list (n)
tala talk, speech; account (n)
tala (að) talk, speak; discuss, converse; tala við - talk with (v)
tálma (að) hinder (v)
tann-skeptr having a handle of walrus ivory
tár tear (n)
taufr charms, talisman (n pl)
taumr bridle, rein; ganga í tauma - fail, not be fulfilled (m)
tefla (lð) play at 'tables', play board games (v)
teitr cheerful, merry; frolicsome (adj)
Teitr Teit (personal name)
tēkn (‡) token, sign (n)
telja (talða) count, reckon; consider, conclude; trace; number, enumerate; recount; declare; recite; tell, say; telja at - object to; telja fyrir - relate to one; try to persuade; telja á hendr - find fault with, rebuke; telja upp - enumerate; telja ættir sinar til - trace their descent back to; teljask undan - refuse, decline (v)
temja tame; train, exercise (v)
Temps Thames river (f)
tengsl ropes; fastenings by which boats were tied together for battle (ship/sailing term) (n pl)
teygja entice (v)
thær (‡) who, that
thiænist (‡) service (f)
thiænist-mæn (‡) servant (m)
thøft, thōft (‡) slow in action or wit (adj); þœfa - to walk clumsily (v)
thō-līkr (‡) such, similar
tholugher (‡) patient (adj)
Thōrs-dagher (‡) Thursday (m)
thré (‡) three (num)
thrif-lēkr (‡) activity; success (m)
thwingæ (‡) oppress, subdue (v)
Thyt(h)æsk (‡) German, a German person
tíð time (f)
tíða desire (v)
tíðendi, tíðindi news, tidings; events; verða tíðendi, vera (or bera) til tíðinda - come to pass, happen (n pl)
tíðr frequent, usual; happening; hvat er títt um þik? - what is the matter with you?; ti erum bók - I often occupy myself with books; sem tiðast - as fast as they could; aldrigh tīth (‡) - never (adj)
tiðum often (adv)
tiginn of high rank
tigr ten, a decade (m num)
tik dog (a female dog)
til in; of, concerning; on; as, for, to obtain; (of time) until, to, up to the time; til handa - for; gott (or ilt) til - well (badly) off for, hér til - up until now; þar til - to this end; vera til - to be obtainable; er þat til - this is to be done; til þess er, til þess unz - until; til þess at - in order to; þar til (er) - until (prep)
til too, very (adv)
til-gørð merit; provocation (f)
til-høra (dh) (‡), til-hoyra (‡) belong to, pertain to
tilkall claim (n)
til-kváma importance; consequence (f)
tillagagoðr reliable; well-disposed (adj)
til-lit glance, look; ilt til-lit - look expressing dislike (n)
til-skipan arrangement; hafa tilskipan - make plans (f)
til-sȳkia (‡) visit, resort to (v)
timbra (að) build, timber, construct
tími, t(h)īme (‡) time; occasion; um tíma - for any time (m)
tin-knappr knob of tin (m)
tīonde (‡) tenth (ord num)
tirœðr counted by tens; ten tens (adj)
títt quickly (adv)
tíu, tiu ten; tiu tigir - a hundred (num)
tiughu (‡) twenty (num)
tivar gods (m pl)
tjá (ð) help; avail (v)
tjald tent, canopy; pavilion; rǫðuls tjald - the heavens (n)
tjalda pitch a tent, set up (booth or tent) (v)
tjaldáss? tentpole (debated)
tjaldat tented; with its awning up
toddi bit, piece, morsel (m)
Tófa Tofa (personal name)
toga (að) pull; fǫrum sem okkr fœtr toga - let us be off as fast as we cn go; togask - pull hard (against) (v)
tøgr ten; hálfa fjórði tøgr - half the fourth ten, thirty-five (num)
tól tool
tólf twelve (num)
tólfræðr counted by twelves, twelve tens (adj)
tólfti twelfth (ord num)
tolla (að) adhere, stick to (v)
tómliga slowly (adv)
tómr slow (adj)
tǫng tong
tǫnn, tönn tooth (f)
topt homestead; the walls or foundations of a (former) building (f)
Toptavöllr Toptavallr (place name) (m)
torf turf (n)
torfa patch of grass or turf (f)
tor-fluttr difficult to perform (adj)
tor-fœra difficult part of a road (f)
tor-sóttr difficult (adj)
Tósti Tosti (personal name)
trauðla hardly, scarcely (adv)
trauðr unwilling, reluctant (adj)
traust help, protection, support, confidence (n)
trautt scarcely (adv)
tré tree; wood; log, beam (n)
tregr reluctant (adj)
trémaðr scarecrow (m)
tréna dry up (v)
tré-telgja wood-cutter (nickname) (f)
trjóna pole (f)
trǫð treading (f); lane between fences (f pl)
troða tread; walk, go; cram, pack; troðask - crowd upon each other (v)
troða pole, stem of wood; troða marglóðar - lady
trog trough (n)
trō-lekær (‡) faithful, loyal (adj)
trǫll troll (n)
tros droppings (n)
trú, trōa (‡) faith; (Christian) religion (f)
trúa troth, good faith (f)
trúa (ð), trōa (‡) believe; trust, have faith; trúa afli - trust in one's might (v)
trú-liga thoroughly; truly (adv)
trúr safe; trusty (adj)
tryggr (van) safe, true, trusty (adj)
tugla-mǫttull cloak with straps (m)
tuldr (‡) toll (m)
túlka (að) act as the spokesman; túlka mál - plead one's case (v)
tún dwelling; farmstead; abode; enclosure; courtyard, (enclosed) field; hayfield; homefield; home meadow; (poetic) dwellings, precincts (n)
tunga tongue; language; tongue of land at the meeting of two rivers (f)
tungl moon (n)
tungl-skin moonlight (n)
tuttugu twenty (num); tuttungundi - twentieth (ord num)
tveir two (num)
tvennr twofold, of two kinds
tví-hólkaðr mounted with a double ring
tví-tugr measuring twenty (stanzas)
týja do, work; help, assist; týði ekki - it was of no avail (v)
týna (d) perish, be lost; lose; forget; mistake (v)
typpa top, crown; put a top on; um hǫfuð typpa - wind a headdress on the head (v)
tyrfa (ð) cover with turf (v)
Tyrfingr Tyrfing (personal name)
tyswar (‡) twice (adv)
Old Norse --- English --- Top a æ b c d e f g h i j k l m n o œ p r s t u v w y z þ
ú- negative prefix
uðr wave
úfr splint, sail pin (later luff) (ship/sailing term)
ugga fear (v)
ú-gildær (‡) unatoned, without compensation
ulfr, úlf, ulv (‡) wolf (m)
ull wool (f)
um over, across; past, through, throughout; round, about; (all) over, in; concerning, as regards; during; at a point of time; um stund - for a while; um þat er - when; kominn um langan veg - come from a long way off; um þveran háls - over the ridge; um þvert - (diagonally) across; um þvert gólfit - over the ridge; þar (or hér) um - about this; um sumrum - in summer; um sinnsakr - for this once; hvat um var (at vera) - what was going on (prep)
um (‡) if (conj)
umbúð preparation; veita umbúð - make arrangement to do a thing (f)
um-búningr outfit (m)
um-gjǫrð scabbard (f)
um-huxan (‡) reflection (f)
um-hverfis around (prep and adv)
um-ráð help, patronage (n)
um-rœða talk, discussion (f)
um-sjá care (f)
um-skipti change; umskipti er á orðit - a decision has been reached (n)
um-sýsla assistance
una dwell, stay, abide, live at; enjoy, be happy in, be contented with a thing; una illa (or við) - be ill-pleased with; un ðu þeir lítla hríð - they did not like staying there but for a little while (v)
und wound (f)
und under (prep)
undan under (from under); from beneath; away; away from; out from; just off, near to; (thrown) down (adv)
undar-liga strangely, wondrously (adv)
undar-ligr strange, wondrous (adj)
undir, undi (‡) under, below; in; beneath; up to; behind; eiga undir sér - have in one's power, be able to manage; niðr undir - down into (prep)
undir-dāne (‡) subject (m)
undir-fǫrull underhand, false (adj)
undir-maðr underling, dependant (m)
undorn midday (the time before or after the midday meal)
undr marvel, wondrous thing (n)
undrask (að) marvel at, be amazed at; wonder at, be astonished (at) (v)
ung-menni youth (n)
ungr young (adj)
unna grant, allow; not to grudge; love (v)
unnr wave (f)
unz until; til þess unz - until (conj)
upp up, upward (motion toward); upp frá þessu - from now on (adv)
upp-dyri lintel, upper cross-piece of doorway (n)
upp-haf beginning (n)
upp-himinn heavens ('upper heaven'), the heavens or sky above (m)
uppi up (position); raised up; be at an end; used up; vera uppi - live, last, be remembered (adv)
uppivǫzlu-maðr pushing, contentious man (m)
upplenzker Uplands, of or pertaining to the Uplands (Norwegian highlands) (adj)
Upplönd Uplands (place name) Norwegian highlands (n pl)
upp-reist success; raising up (f)
uppréttr erect (adj)
uppruni origin (m)
Uppsalir Uppsala (place name) (m pl)
upp-stertr elated, 'with his tail up' (adj)
úr drizzle; flakes of metal (n)
Urðarbrunnr Urdarbrunn, the Well of Fate (m)
urðr weird, (dire) fate; undoing, ruin; (pl.) fates, powers of fate; (name of a norn)
Urðr Urd, Fate, that which should become, one of the three Norns (f)
ú-skæll (‡) unfair dealings (n pl)
út out; from abroad; fara út í lǫnd - go abroad (from Norway) (adv)
útan outside (of); externally; beyond; without; from without; um útan - around it; fyr útan - outside; (adv); utæn (‡)- beyond, without; except (prep); but (conj)
útan-ferð passage abroad (f)
útan-lands abroad (adv)
útar farther out; útarsk - farthest out (adv)
útarliga far out; setjask útar-liga - sit near the door (adv)
út-burðr exposure of an infant (m)
út-ganga going out (f)
Útgarðr Utgard, the Outer Enclsoures, the home of the giants (place name)
ūt-gift (‡) payment; charge (f)
út-giúta to shed, make flow (v)
ūt-glūta (‡) shed, make flow (v)
úti outside; out at sea; unsheltered (adv)
úti-búr outhouse; shed (n)
úti-dyrr outer door (f pl)
útlægr outlawed (adj)
út-lænninge (‡) foreigner (m)
út-lagi outlaw (m)
út-lendr foreign (adj)
út-norðr north-west, 'out north' (adj)
út-roðr (rar) rowing out to fish (m)
út-suðr south-west, 'out south' (adj)
út-synningr south-west wind (m)
ú-witændhes (‡) unknowingly (adv)
uxi ox (m)
Old Norse --- English --- Top a æ b c d e f g h i j k l m n o œ p r s t u v w y z þ
vaather (‡) wet (adj)
váð cloth (n); clothes (n pl)
vaða wade; wade through (water), pass through; rush (at an opponent); vaða fram - charge onward (v)
vað-áss wooden pole or beam (for drying the washing) (m)
vaðir clothes (f pl)
váðir clothes
vægð mercy, forbearance (f)
væmpti sik (‡) armed himself (v)
vængr wing (m)
væni expectation
vænkask take a good turn, bid fair (v)
vænn beautiful, handsome, fair to behold; likely, to be expected; hopeful, promising; Þjálfa var eigi vænt - could not be expected; venna - more likely, probable, vænstr - most likely (adj)
vænta (t) expect, hope for (v)
Væringi Varangian, the name of the Norse warriors who served as bodyguards to the emperors of Constantinople in the Varangian Guard (m)
væta (tt) wet (to wet), stain (v)
vætki no one; not a whit, nothing
vætr nothing (n); not at all (adv)
vætta hope, expect (v)
vættfang battlefield, scene of action (n)
vættr creature, being; supernatural being, spirit (f)
vagga cradle (f)
vagn wagon; vehicle (m)
vagn-karl carter (someone who drives a cart or wagon) (m)
vágr bay, creek; sea; wave (m)
vág-skorinn indented with bays
vaka awake (be awake), stay awake; watch (v)
vaka vigil (f)
vakna awake, get up (n)
vakti waken; rouse (v)
válað poverty; destitution; destiny (n)
válaðr poor; wretched, needy (adj)
vald power, control (n)
valda cause; be the cause of; wield; have authority in; have in charge (v)
valdr, val-dýr wolf; carrion beast (n)
Valdres Valdres, a highland region in Norway (f)
Valfǫðr Valfothr, Father of the Slain, Odin
Valhöll Halhalla, the Hall of the Slain (f)
Valir French people; inhabitants (esp. Celtic) of France (m pl)
val-kyrja valkyrie, chooser of the slain (f)
Valland France (n)
valr corpses on the battlefield, the slain (m)
val-slǫngva war-sling (f)
val-tæigr arm, 'hawk's ground'; Hilldr valtægrs - lady (m)
val-tafn slain as prey (n)
val-tivar gods of battle; warrior gods (m pl)
vamm blemish, fault
ván hope, expectation, prospect; probability; sem ván var - as was to be expected; erumk vánir - I am expecting; at vánum - to be expected; vánu bráðara - sooner than expected; (f)
vandalhús wicker house (n)
vandalmál complicated case, difficult matter (n)
vand-bálkr partition or wall of wattle (m)
vandi obligation; habit, custom; leggja í vanða sin - make a habit of (m)
vandliga carefully, completely (adv)
vandr, vándr difficult; evil, (qualitatively) bad, wretched; (morally) bad; wicked; obliging; vant er at sjá - one cannot know; mun oss vandara gǫrt - it will be more incumbent on us (adj)
vand-ræði difficulty, trouble (n)
van-farinn endangered (in evil straits) (adj)
vangi upper part of the cheek (m)
vani custom, usage (m)
Vanir Vanir, one of the two major groups of gods ( m pl)
van-mátta ill; sore (adj)
vanr accustomed, wont; usual; lacking; manns var vant - a man was missing; saur eggi vant viðr - there was no lack of mud (adj)
vansi harm, shame (m)
vanta (að) be lacking; vantar - someone misses something (v)
van-trō (‡) unbelief (f)
vápn weapon (n)
vápna (að) arm (v)
vápna-skipti missile exchange (exchange of missiles) (n)
vápna-tak taking up of weapons at the end of the assembly (n)
vápn-burðr missile shower (shower of missiles) (m)
vápn-fœrr skilled in arms; capable of bearing arms (adj)
vápn-lauss weaponless (adj)
vár spring (n)
var, war (‡) was (v)
vara warn; varask við - avoid, shun (v)
vára become spring (v)
vara (ð) expect (impers.); mik varði - I expected; mundi mik annars vara - I would have expected other treatment (v)
varða cairn (f)
varða (að) watch; guard against (v)
varði cairn (m)
varði-lokur song for attracting spirits (f pl)
varð-maðr watcher, warder (m)
varð-veita keep, preserve, watch, defend (v)
varð-veizla keeping; things in charge (f)
varg-ǫld wolf-age (f)
vargr wolf (m)
variændi (‡) defendant (as defendant)
vár-kunn excuse; what is to be excused (f)
varla scarcely (adv)
var-liga scarcely (adv)
varmr warm (adj)
varnaðr warning (m)
varnaðr goods, merchandise (m)
varnaðr warning (m)
varnan warning (f)
varningr cargo, wares (m)
varr aware; wary; var við - aware of; varr um sik - on one's guard; verð varr - become aware of, hear; varð ekki vart við þá - nothing was seen of them
várr our, of us; mál várt Egils - the case between Egil and me (adj)
vart scarcely; scantily; but little (adv)
varþing spring assembly (n)
váru, vóro (‡) were (v)
váru-t were not (v)
vás hardships (of bad weather) (n)
vas-a was not (v)
vas-k-a I was not
vaskr brave, bold, gallant, valiant (adj)
vatn, watn (‡) water; lake; waterway; river (n)
vatna (að) covered with water; land var vatnat - the land was out of sight
vatns-botn lake head; head (upper end) of lake (m)
vátr wet (adj)
vátt-nefna witness summons, calling of witnesses (f)
váttr witness (m)
vaxa grow, grow big, increase, wax; grown up; vaxinn - overgrown with (v)
banner (n pl)
veð pledge (n)
veðr weather; wind; storm (n)
Veðrfölnir Vedrfolnir, the hawk which sits between the eyes of the eagle atop Yggdrasill (m)
vefa weave (v)
vefja wrap, entangle (v)
vefr weaving; web (in the loom); thrusting (of spears) (m)
vega kill, slay; fight; smite; lift; vegask - fight (v)
vegg-berg wall of rock (n)
veggr, wægg (‡) wall (m)
vegna tveggja vegna - on two sides (adv)
vegnest provisions for a journey
vegr, vægher (‡) road, way; journey; glory, honor; direction; side; dimension; mode, manner; þann veg - thus, so, in that way; annan veg - otherwise; einn veg - in the same way; þan wegin (‡) - in the same way (m)
veiða catch; hunt (v)
veiði-ferð fishing expedition (f)
veiði-fǫr hunting expedition (f)
veiði-konnungr hunting king (m)
veiði-maðr huntsman (m)
veiðr hunting, fishing, catch (f)
veifa swing, wave (v)
Veigr Veig, Liquor
veina wail, cry out (v)
veita (tt), wēta (ath) (‡), waita (‡) give, grant; help; pay, yield; (recip.) back one another; veita etgǫngu - assault; veita dreið - charge with cavalry against; veita bana - be the slayer of (v)
veizla feast, banquet (f)
vekja (vakti, vekte (‡)) wake, waken, awake; rouse; vekja upp - wake up (v)
vek-k wake (I wake); vek-k-a - I do not wake (v)
vel well; very; gladly, readily, easily; vel kominn - welcome; vel at sér - nobleminded, gifted, capable; vel flestir - almost any, nearly all; vel hvat - everything (adv)
vél artifice (f)
véla(t) vela um - deal with (v)
velja choose (v)
vella (d) boil (v)
velspár prophesying well or rightly
veltask roll over (v)
venja train; accustom; af venjask - cease one's customary practice (v)
venna probable; more likely; vænstr - most likely
ver sea (n)
vér, wī (‡) we (pron)
vera means of existence, way (of going on); resort, refuge
vera, vesa, waræ (‡), vara (‡), væræ (‡) be; last; stay; be done; happen; vera fyrir - lead; vera þar fyrir - be there present; vera við - be present, take part in; þat var þá, er… - it happened, when ...; sem þú ert - such as you are; hvat min rað eru - what my counsels are worth; þau hafa upphof verit - these were the beginnings (v)
verð price; worth (n)
verða happen, happen to, befall, come to pass; change, become; have to, be obliged to; chance to be; take place; verð at - become; verða í - happen; verða at grjóti - turn to stone; verða at sœtt - reconcile; verða fyrir - comein the way of, come under; verða sæhafa - be driven off-course (when sailing) (ship/sailing term); verða til langæðar - be one's lot for long; ekki verðr af oss - nothing comes of our efforts; ekki mundi okkr til orðit - nothing (i.e., no trouble) would have arisen between us; varð þeim þat fyrir - it happened to them; fé þeira varð vel - their cattle did well; at því mun mǫrgum verða - it shall happen to many accordingly; as many shall learn to their cost; varð fyrir þeim mǫrk - they came upon a forest; at bǫnum vertask - slay each other; verðið vel við - keep up your hearts; vitlitill við - act foolishly about; nú er á orðit mikit fyrir mér - now I have come under great difficulty; varð fyrir þeim mǫrk - they came upon a forest; vera satt - be proved true; vera at bana - be the death of, slay; at bǫnum verðask- slay each other; verðja víss - find out, ascertain; verðið vel við - keep up your hearts; verða við - respond to; verða vitlítill við - act foolishly about (v)
Verðandi Verdandi (personal name, mythological) Becoming or Happening, one of the three Norns (f)
verðr worth, fitting; deserving, worthy of; fitting; minna vert - less wonderful; þótti mikils um vert um þetta verk - it seemed a deed of great account (adj)
verðung king's men (f)
ver-gjǫrn, ver-gjarn lustful, eager for men, mad after men (adj)
verja (varði) invest; lay out; er bezt varit í Nóeg - which is of the greatest value to bring to Norway (v)
verja (varði) defend, protect; keep away; hold a place against, keep one away from; verjask - keep oneself (v)
verk work; deed (n)
verk-maðr laborer (m)
verknaðr work (m)
verma (d) heat (v)
ver-ǫld, ver-öld world (f)
verpa throw, cast; deal out; inlay (runes); verpa haug - build up a mound (over the dead) (v)
verr man, husband (m)
verr worse (adv)
verri worse; hit verra - the worst course, evil (adj)
verst worst; sem verst - as bad as it can be; as bad as possible (adv)
verstr, værster (‡) worst (adj)
vesall pathetic, wretched, miserable; (exclamation of impatience) (adj)
vesal-ligr ugly, mean-looking, ill-favored (adj)
vestan western; from the west; west (of); bearing to the west; fyrir vestan haf - west over the sea; (adv)
vest-firzkr Iceland geography (from the west-fjord district of Iceland)
vestr westward (adv)
vestr west (the west) (n); westward (adv); fyrir vestan - westward; vestr um haf - west over the ocean (to Britain); vestan at ánni - on the west side of the river
vestr-ætt west (the west) (f)
Vestri West
Vestrlönd Westlands,the British Isles and France (n pl)
vestrœnn western (adj)
vestrvegir west, i.e., towards the British Isles and beyond, lit the western ways (m pl)
vetr (rar) winter; í vetr - last winter; um vetrinn - for the winter (m)
vetrar-dagr winter day (day of winter) (m)
vetr-gamall one year (winter) old
vetr-grœnn green in the winter
vetr-vist lodging for the winter (f)
véurr protector; Þor (Thor), 'Midgarðs véurr', 'mankind's protector'
við, viðr, with(ær) (‡), wiþr (‡), vidh(er) (‡) at, greet; by, close to, beside; with, (together) with; according to, after; reaching to, against, leaning against; to, toward, toward, at; in exchange for; by; because of; by means of; equal to; against (in a contest); þar við - for it; við at - for that purpose; þar viðr - in addition to that; við innan - inside; var viðr sialft - it was a near thing, they came near to (prep)
víða widely, far and wide, in many places; extensively (adv)
viða (að) provide with wood; viða heim ǫllum sumarviði - bring in all the summer wood (v)
viðara farther (adv)
viðar-kǫstr wood-pile; pile of wood (m)
viðar-taug flexible and tough twig (f)
viðfǫng supplies (n pl)
víðfrægr famous, widely-known (adj)
viðhlæjandi laugher (one who laughs) or smiles at one
víðir sea (m)
viðr tree; beam; forest; wood; timber (m)
víðr wide (adj)
viðr-eign encounter; dealings (f)
Viðrir Odin (personal name)
viðr-taka defense, reception (f)
við-skipti dealings (n)
við-taka reception (f)
viðu-hús turret (ship/sailing term)
viðuligr magnificent (adj)
víf woman, wife (n)
vifill beetle
víg battle, fight; homicide, manslaughter, killing (n)
víga-ferli manslaughters (n pl)
viga-maðr fighter (m)
víg-djarfr bold in battle
vígg-ruðr horseman, 'horse-tree'; vágaviggruðr, ruðrvágviggs - seafarer, 'tree (man, rider) of the steed of the waves' (m)
vígja (ð) consecrate, hallow; lay a spell on (v)
vígr able to fight; vígr vel - well-skilled in arms'; er vígt var at - whom it was permissible to slay (adj)
víg-reifr rejoicing in battle
vígvöllr battlefield (m)
vík bay; turn(ing) (f)
Vík Vik, Bay (place name) (f)
vika week; vika fyrr - a week earlier; (f)
Víkin Vik region, Oslo fjord
víking raid; í víking - on a raid; (f)
víkingavörðr Viking-Guard (coast guard against Vikings) (m)
vikingr Viking, pirate (m)
víkja move, turn; víkjask við - respond; take action; þat víksk eigi - that is certain; nú víkr sögunni - now the saga shifts (v)
Víkrmaðr man from Vík (m)
víl trouble
vilðar-maðr favorite, favored retainer (m)
vilgi very (adv)
Vilhjálmr William (personal name); Vilhjálmr bastarðr - William the Conqueror, illegitimate son of Robert Longsword (m)
vili will, desire, disposition (m)
Víli Vili (personal name)
vilja want, wish, will, be willing; intend; desire a service of one; vilja at - wish to attack; vil-k-at - I do not wish; oss vil ekki annat - we shall get nothing else (v)
vill-hyggjandi bewildered, deluded (v)
villi-eldr flame, wild-fire (m)
villr wild, erring, astray; vasa villr staðar - was rightly placed
villtr foolish, astray
vín wine [from Lat. vinum] (n)
vinaboð feast for one's friends (n)
vinátta friendship (esp. a sincere, personal friendship) (f)
vín-ber grape (n)
vinda twist, wring, squeeze; wind, hoist; turn, swing; vindask - make a sudden movement to turn oneself away; vinda segl - hoist sail (ship/sailing term)(v)
Vindálfr Vindalf, Wind-elf
vind-áss windlass, 'winding pole' (ship/sailing term) (m)
vind-ǫld age of storm (f)
vindr wind, air (m)
vinfengi friendship (esp. a contractual alliance) (n)
vini leader
vinna win, gain; work; perform, do, accomplish; conquer, overcome; vinna herskap á - win battles against; vinnask - win or gain for oneself; vinnask til - last, suffice; ekki fyrir unnit - nothing had been done to prepare for it; vinna sóma fyrir - pay recompense for (v)
vinr friend; patron, leader (m)
vin-sæld popularity (f)
vin-sæll popular, beloved (adj)
vin-skaper (‡) friendship (m)
vinstri left (adj)
vín-viðr grape-vine (m)
virða evaluate, estimate, value, appraise; esteem, be honored, esteemed; virða engis - show no honor to (v)
virðar men (m pl)
virðing honor, respect, value, reputation (f)
virðu-ligr honorable, magnificent (adj)
virki stronghold (n)
Virvir Virvir (personal name)
visa show (v)
vísa guide; direct (v)
vísa verse, stanza (f)
Vísburr Visbur (personal name) (m)
vísi leader, prince (m)
vísinda-kona prophetess, sibyl (f)
vísindi knowledge, intelligence (n pl)
víss certain, wise; known; til víss, fyrir víst - for certain; vita hvers víss yrði - find out for certain; veggbergs vísir - frequenters of the rocks, knowing the precipice; at vísu, víst - certainly, in truth (adj)
vist food; food and lodging, provisions; stay; abode; employment, service; vera á vist með - stay with one (f)
víst certainly, in truth (adv)
vísundr bison (m)
vit intelligence, sense, wit, wits, understanding (n)
vit we (two) (pron)
vita know; be aware of; understand; be certain of; know how (to); know of; find out; see; vita fram or vita fyrir - knowing the future, foresee; ascertained, proved historical; appointed, marked out; vitu þer enn? - do you know now?; vita ván - expect; hans erumk ván vituð - I am expecting him; vita fram - see into the future, know of, have heard of; má ek þat eigi vita - I cannot bear (to know) that; þat veit trúa mín - upon my faith; vita fram - see into the future; vita upp - be turned up(v)
vita (‡) right of taking witness (f)
vitaðr ascertained
vitandi knowing (v)
víti penalty, punishment, liability to penalty; injury, misfortune
vítis-horn sconce-horn (n)
vitja (að) visit, go to (a place); vera at vitr - be found (v)
vit-lítill witless, having little good sense (adj)
vitni witness (n)
Vitr Vit (personal name), Color
vitr (ran) wise, intelligent (adj)
vítt far (adv)
vitta (tt) enchant, conjure (v)
vixla (‡) consecrate (v)
vizku-munr understanding, difference of wits (m)
vöðvi muscle (m)
Vöggr Vogg (personal name) (m)
vǫllr, völlr field, plain; ground, level ground; vǫllr brimils - the sea, 'the seal's ground' (m)
vǫlva, völva prophetess, seeress; witch, sorceress, soothsayer (f)
vorð, vǫrð wife (f)
vorðr, vörðr guard, watch; warden; coastguard, watchman (m)
vǫrn, vorn defense (f)
vörr pull of an oar (m)
vǫxtr, vöxtr size, stature, growth; shape, form (m)
Old Norse --- English --- Top a æ b c d e f g h i j k l m n o œ p r s t u v w y z þ
wæi-mærr (‡) ill fame (of ill fame)
waghn (‡) wagon, cart (m)
wal-rauvaR (‡) spoils taken from the slain (f pl)
wantæ (‡) gloves (m pl)
wāþi (‡) peril (m)
wē (‡) temple (n)
wereidi (‡) wergild, the legal value of a man's life (m)
wēt-wangR (‡) battlefield (field of battle) (m)
wī (‡) we (pron)
wiþr-ātta (‡) dispute (f)
wōrthæ-løs (‡) bewildered (n)
wrōngær (‡), wranger (‡) wrong, unrighteous
Old Norse --- English --- Top a æ b c d e f g h i j k l m n o œ p r s t u v w y z þ
ý-bogi, ybogi bow (yew bow) (m)
yð(v)arr your, of you (pl pron)
yðr you (pron)
yfir above, over, at; across, upon (prep)
yfir-bœtr compensation (f pl)
yfir-brag appear
yfir-bragð appearance, demeanor; vel í yfirbraði - of distinguished appearance (n)
yfirferðar-illr difficult to cross or travel over
yfir-maðr leader, chieftain (m)
Yggdrasill Yggdrasil, name of the World Tree (m)
ykkarr your, of you two (adj)
ykkr you (pron)
ýla, yla howl, yell (v)
ylgr she-wolf (f)
Ymir Ymir (personal name), a giant (m)
ymiss, ýmiss various; í ýmis setin - from one set to another, i.e., away from each bed-space to the next
ymist by turns, variously, (adv)
ymja (umdi) wail, groan (v)
ymr groaning; humming sound (m)
Yngvi Yngvi (personal name)
yppa (pð) raise, lift (v)
ýr bow of yew; yew tree (m)
ýrit sufficiently (adv)
yrkja work, esp. cultivate; compose (verses); yrka á - set about; attack one another; yrkisk á um - it begins (v)
ýtri outer, outermost (adj)
ýtrster (‡) last; at ýtersto (‡) - finally
yxen, yxæ (‡) oxen (m pl)
ýztr outermost (adj)
Old Norse --- English --- Top a æ b c d e f g h i j k l m n o œ p r s t u v w y z þ
Zóe dróttning in ríka Empress Zoe the Great, c. 978 – 1050 AD, Byzantine Empress (f)
Old Norse --- English --- Top a æ b c d e f g h i j k l m n o œ p r s t u v w y z þ
þá then, at that time; þá ok þá - at nearly every moment (adv)
þá er when (conj)
þaðan from there, thence; þadan af, þaðan frá - from that point onward (adv)
þæn (‡), thæn (‡) this, the; þæn sum - one who, such as (pron)
þær they; those (ones) (f pl)
þagall silent (adj)
þak roof, thatch (n)
þakka thank (v)
þan than; fyr þan (‡) - before, until
þangat to there, thither (motion toward); þangat til - till that time; þangat til er - until; (adv)
Þangbrandr Thangbrand (personal name)
þannig thither, in that way (adv)
þar there; since; although; in that place; þar til - until (adv); þar sem - where (conj)
þarfr necessary; useful (adj)
þat it; - that (one) (pron)
þáttr tale, short story, 'strand' of rope or yarn (m)
þau they; those (ones) (n pl pron)
þeccr Thekk (personal name), Known
þegar at once, immediately; already; þegar á morgin - the first thing in the morning; þegar á unga aldri - already by a young age; þegar um haustit - that very autumn; þegars - as soon as (adv)
þegja be silent; keep one's mouth shut (v)
þegn freeman; subject; a good man; servant (m)
þegnskapr generosity; open-handedness (m)
þeim that (one); þeir/þær/þau - they; those (ones) (m)
þeir, þē(r) (‡), þair (‡) they; those (ones) (pron pl)
þeira they; their (pron)
þekja thatch, roof (f)
þekkja (ð) notice, perceive; know, recognize; accept; þekkjast - know one another (v)
þengill king; lord (m)
þér you (pron pl)
þerra towel
þessi this, these (pron)
þeygi yet not (adv)
þiauþ (‡) person (n)
Þiðrandi Thidrandi (personal name) (m)
þiggja accept; receive; accept lodgings; þiggja undan - get one released (v)
þili, þilja deck, deck planking (ship/sailing term) (f)
þing, thing (‡) assembly (legal assembly), meeting, lit thing (n)
þing-deila suit at the Thing (f)
þing-djarfr bold in battle (adj)
þing-há assembly-district (f)
þing-maðr thingman, the follower of an Icelandic chieftain, liegeman who goes with his goþi to the þing (m)
þingmanna-leið route taken to attend the þing (f)
þing-reið riding to attend the Thing (f)
þing-vǫllr Thing-Plain (place name); ground where the þing is held, assembly-field (m)
þinn your; thy, thine, of you (pron)
þióðlǫð invitation (friendly invitation)
þit you; you two (pron)
þjá (ð) enslave (v)
þjó thigh (n)
þjóð people, nation; race (f)
þjóðann prince; ruler (m)
þjófr thief (m)
þjófsaugu thief's eyes (n pl)
þjóna (að) serve (v)
þjónustu-maðr servant (m)
þjóta flow; resound; rush (v)
þó yet, and yet; however, nevertheless; þo at, þótt - though, even if (adv)
þœfa walk clumsily (v)
þófi saddle-pad, felt (m)
þǫgn silence (f)
þǫgull silent (adj)
þoka fog, mist (f)
þǫkk, þökk, þokk thanks (f)
þola, þula (‡) suffer, endure; tolerate (v)
þollr tree; fir tree (m)
þollr tree (the ash Yggdrasil); post, pillar; beam
þopta bench (rowing bench), thwart
þora (ð) dare (v)
þórdis Thordis (personal name) (m)
þórðr Thord (personal name) (m)
þǫrf need, lack
þorfastr Thorfast (personal name) (m)
þorgeirr Thorgeir (pesonal name); þorgeirr flöskubakr - Thorgeir Flask-Back (m)
þorgerðr Thorgerd (personal name) (f)
þorgils Thorgils (personal name); þorgils þorsteinsonnar - Thorgils, son of Thorstein (m)
þorgrímr Thorgrim (personal name) (m)
þóríðr Thorith (personal name) (m)
þorinn Thorin (personal name) (m)
þórir Thorir (personal name) (m)
þorkell Thorkel (personal name); þorkell Geitisson - Thorkel, son of Geitir (m)
þorlákr Thorlak (personal name) (m)
þor-móþR (‡) bold of heart
þórólf Thorolf (personal name) (m)
þórr Thor, god of thunder, husband of Sif, son of Odin and Earth (m)
þorsteinn Thorsteinn (personal name); þorstein hviti - Thorsteinn the White (m)
þót although (conj)
þótt, þó at though, even if; seeing that (adv)
þóttumk 1/100 (num)
þrá persistence; obstinacy (n)
þræll thrall, slave (m)
þræta (tt) deny, argue (v)
þráinn Thrain (personal name)
þrasa be belligerent (v)
þrausk rummaging (n)
þreifa (að) touch or feel with one's hand; þreifask - fumble, grope (v)
þrek strength, fortitude (n)
þrek-lauss timid, gutless, 'without fortitude', pithless (adj)
þrek-ligr stout of frame (adj)
þrek-mikill stout of heart (adj)
þrekvirki courageous deed, feat of strength (n)
þrettán thirteen (num); þrettándi - thirteenth (ord num)
þrettāundi (‡) thirteenth (ord num)
þré-vetr (ran) three years old
þreyja desire; long for, suffer love-longing (v)
þreyta (tt) contend; strive hard (v)
þriði third (ord num)
Þriði Third, one of the three interrogators of King Gylfi (m)
þriðjungr third; third part; riding (m)
þrífa grasp; þrifa í - lay hold of; þrifa til - grab hold of (v)
þrír three (num)
þrír tigir thirty (num)
þrjóta fail; þraut ørindit - breath failed him (v)
þróask (að) grow (big), thrive, increase (v)
þrǫmr shield rim, edge (m)
þrǫmr edge, rim (of shield) (m)
þrǫngr (van) close together
þrøngva (ð) push; press (v)
þrór Thror (personal name) (m)
þroski strength (full development of strength) (m)
Þröstr Throst (personal name) (m)
þróttigr strong, mighty (adj)
þrótt-lauss weak; feeblehearted, 'without strength', pithless (adj)
þrúðugr strong, powerful; doughty (adj)
þruma (ð) stand motionless, hover; remain silent
þrumði lie; welter (v)
þrymja resound, thunder (v)
Þrymr Thrymr, lord among the giants (m)
þrysvar thrice (num)
þú you, thou (pron)
þumall thumb (m)
þumlungr thumb (of a glove) (m)
þungr heavy; difficult; be necessary; þungt ganga - go badly; er þungt í skapi - one is heavy-hearted (adj)
þunnr thin, stretched, strained (adj)
þurðr diminution (m)
þurfa, thorfua (‡) need; (impers.) be necessary; have need of; require; þurfa við - stand in need of; þarf - it is neceessary (v)
þurftugr needy (in need) (adj)
þurr dry (adj)
þurs giant, ogre (m)
þurs-ligr giant-like (like a giant) (adj)
þurvi Thurvi (personal name) (f)
þú'st, þú est you are, thou art
þúsund thousand, usually a long thousand (twelve hundred) (f)
þvá wash (v)
þvengr lace, thong; leiðar þvengr - serpent, 'thong of the road' (m)
þverr adverse, athwart; contrary; um þverr - across; þvers - abruptly (adj)
þverra decrease, wane, diminish, grow less (v)
þver-þili transverse partition, near the entrance of the hall (n)
þver-tré cross-beam (n)
því thus, therefore; for this reason; because of this; í því er - at the moment when; meðr því - thus (adv); því at - since, for, because; því næst - thereupon, then; þat mun þvi at eins, ef … - that will only be so, if …; í því er - at the moment when; meþr því - thus; því at þvít - since, because (conj)
því-líkr such (adj)
Þvinnill Thvinnill (personal name), name of a Viking (m)
þýða (dd) explain, interpret, interpret as; signify; win over; equalize (make equivalent); þýðask - assocate with (v)
þykkja (þótti) seem, be thought; think (seem to one); þykkjask - seem to one, think oneself; þykki(r) mér, þkkjumk- seems to me, I think; er eggi mun litilræði þykkja í - who would not think it beneath his dignity; mér þykkir fyrir í - I am displeased; þykkr fyrir - one who is unwilling or fearful; þykkja mikill - affect one greatly; Þórr þottisk skilja - Thor thought he understood; er þér þykkizk vera við búnir - which you think you are endowed with (v)
þykkr (van) thick, close; sem þykkvast - as close as possible (adj)
þykkt thickly (adv)
þylja (þuldi) recite (v)
Þyri Thyri (personal name)
þyrma (d) show respect or mercy to (v)
þyrstr thirsty (adj)
þytr howling (m)
þýzka German language

Sources

  • A. Richard Diebold Center for Indo-European Language and Culture, Linguistics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Old Norse Online Base Form Dictionary, Jonathan Slocum and Todd B. Krause, http://www.utexas.edu/cola/depts/lrc/eieol/norol-BF.html
  • E.V. Gordon, An Introduction to Old Norse, Oxford University Press; 2 edition (July 23, 1981), ISBN 9780198111849
  • Jesse L. Byock, Viking Language 1, Jules William Press, © 2013, ISBN 9781480216440
  • Ross G. Arthur, English-Old Norse Dictionary, www.yorku.ca/inpar/language/English-Old_Norse.pdf
  • Jackson Crawford, YouTube Old Norse lecture series, Instructor of Nordic Studies and Nordic Program Coordinator, University of Colorado, Boulder
  • Regia Anglorum: Mik Lawson: miklawson@yahoo.co.uk, http://www.mun.ca/mst/heroicage/issues/8/sayers.html
  • The Society for Creative Anachronism: http://www.housebarra.com/EP/ep04/12norsecurse.html

  ©   For information contact Jack Garrett at info@vikingsofbjornstad.com