:: The Vikings of Bjornstad ::
Viking Runes
The Younger Futhark

By the Viking Age the 24 runes of the Anglo-Saxon, or elder, futhark had been simplified, adapted or discarded to the 16 runes of the "younger" futhark - in Scandinavia.  There were two primary variants of the younger futhark, one of which was the Swedo-Norwegian, or "short-twig" futhark and the more common "Danish" futhark shown below.  And, of course, this futhark was neither standardized nor used consistently.

Phonetic Value Rune Old Norse Name Translation of Name
f cattle, money, gold
u/o/ö/v úr(r) drizzling rain/slag/aurochs
th/dh thurs thurs (“giant”)
ą áss The god Odin
r reidh a ride, riding / vehicle / thunderclap
k/g/ng kaun a sore
h hagall hail
n naudh(r) need, bondage, fetters
i/e íss ice
a ár (good) year, harvest
s sól sun
t/d/nd Týr The god Týr
b/p/mb bjarkan birch(-goddess)
m madhr man, human
l lögr sea, waterfall (liquid)
-R ýr yew, bow of yew wood

Primary source:
  • Runes: Reading the Past, R.I.Page, University of California Press/British Museum, 1989, ISBN 0-520-06114-4
  • Runelore, Edred Thorsson, Samuel Weiser, Inc., 1987, ISBN 0-87728-667-1
  • Rudiments of Runelore, Sthephen Pollington, Anglo-Saxon Books, 1995, ISBN 1-898281-16-5
  ©   For information contact Jack Garrett at info@vikingsofbjornstad.com